Advertisement

Lymphoma

  • Deborah F. BillmireEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Lymphoma has two major subtypes, Hodgkin’s lymphoma and nonHodgkin’s lymphoma, and accounts for approximately 13 % of childhood cancer. The 2008 revision of the World Health Organization classification system is currently used to define subtypes based on immunophenotypic characteristics. Virtually all anatomic areas may be the primary site for this malignancy, and the clinical presentations are protean. Hodgkin’s lymphoma occurs in nodal groups and tends to follow an anatomic progression. NonHodgkin’s lymphoma occurs in extranodal tissue and has a wide variety of clinical symptoms. The surgeon serves an important role in recognizing the potential for this diagnosis in all cases of undiagnosed soft tissue mass and in obtaining a properly handled specimen for pathologic examination. Preoperative evaluation for the presence of a mediastinal mass is of particular importance in all children with suspected lymphoma due to the risk of cardiovascular collapse with general anesthesia.

Keywords

Lymphoma Hodgkin’s lymphoma NonHodgkin’s lymphoma Burkitt’s lymphoma MALT lymphoma Reed-Sternberg cell 

References

  1. 1.
    Ambulkar I, Nair R. Primary ovarian lymphoma: report of cases and review of literature. Leuk Lymphoma. 2003;44:825–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Atra A, Meller ST, Stevens RS, et al. Conservative management of follicular non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in childhood. Br J Haematol. 1998;103:220–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Becker AM, Bowers DC, Margraf LR, et al. Primary renal lymphoma presenting with hypertension. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007;48(7):711–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bhatia S, Robison LL, Oberlin O, et al. Breast cancer and other second neoplasms after childhood Hodgkin’s disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:745–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bombeccari GP, Guzzi G, Ruffoni D, et al. Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lower lip in a child. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46(12):2414–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Breuer CK, Tarbell NJ, Mauch PM, et al. The importance of staging laparotomy in pediatric Hodgkin’s disease. J Pediatr Surg. 1994;29:1085–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cesaro S, Pillon M, Visintin G, et al. Unrelated bone marrow transplantation for high-risk anaplastic large cell lymphoma in pediatric patients: a single center case series. Eur J Haematol. 2005;75:22–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chaignaud BE, Bonsack TA, Kozakewich HP, et al. Pleural effusions in lymphoblastic lymphoma: a diagnostic alternative. J Pediatr Surg. 1998;33:1355–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Claviez A, Meyer U, Dominick C, et al. MALT lymphoma in children: a report from the NHL-BRM Study Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006;47:210–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dalle J-H, Mechinaud F, Michon J, et al. Testicular disease in childhood B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: the French Society of Pediatric Oncology experience. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:2397–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Donadieu J, Patte C, Kalifa C, et al. Diagnostic and therapeutic problems posed by malignant non Hodgkin lymphoma of renal origin in children. Apropos of 7 cases. Arch Fr Pediatr. 1992;49:699–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ehrlich PF, Friedman DL, Schwartz CL. Monitoring diagnostic accuracy and complications. A report from the Children’s Oncology Group Hodgkin lymphoma study. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42(5):788–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fidias P, Carey RW, Grossbard ML. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma presenting with biliary tract obstruction. Cancer. 1995;75:1669–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fleming ID, Turk PS, Murphy SB, et al. Surgical implications of primary gastrointestinal lymphoma of childhood. Arch Surg. 1990;125:252–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Friedberg JW, Fischman A, Neuberg D, et al. FDG-PET is superior to Gallium scintigraphy in staging and more sensitive in the follow-up of patients with de novo Hodgkin lymphoma: a blinded comparison. Leuk Lymphoma. 2004;45:85–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gabriel DA, Bernard SA, Lambert J, et al. Oophoropexy and the management of Hodgkin’s disease. Arch Surg. 1986;121:1083–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gahukamble DB, Khamage AS. Limitations of surgery in intraabdominal Burkitt’s lymphoma in children. J Pediatr Surg. 1995;30:519–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Garavello W, Romagnoli M, Sordo L, et al. Incidence of unexpected malignancies in routine tonsillectomy specimens in children. Laryngoscope. 2004;114:1103–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Guglielmi R, Calzauna F, Pizzi GB, et al. Ovarian function after pelvic lymph node irradiation. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1980;2:99–107.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hays DM, Fryer CJ, Pringle KC, et al. An evaluation of abdominal staging procedures performed in pediatric patients with advance Hodgkin’s disease: a report from the Children’s Cancer Study Group. J Pediatr Surg. 1992;27:1175–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hays DM, Ternberg JL, Chen TT, et al. Postsplenectomy sepsis and other complications following staging laparotomy for Hodgkin’s disease in childhood. J Pediatr Surg. 1986;21:628–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Heller KN, Teruya-Feldstein J, LaQuaglia MP, et al. Primary follicular lymphoma of the testis: excellent outcome following surgical resection without adjuvant chemotherapy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2004;26:104–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hernandez-Pampaloni M, Takalkar A, Yu JQ, et al. F-18 FDG-PET imaging and correlation with CT in staging and follow-up of pediatric lymphomas. Pediatr Radiol. 2006;36:524–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hudson MM. Pediatric Hodgkin’s therapy: time for a paradigm shift. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:3755–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Izarzugaza MI, Steliarova-Foucher E, Carmen Martos M, et al. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma incidence and survival in European children and adolescents (1978–1997): report from the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System project. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42:2050–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jaffe ES, Harris NL, Stein H, et al. Introduction and overview of the classification of the lymphoid neoplasms. In: Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, et al., editors. WHO classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. 4th ed. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2008. p. 157–66.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kassira N, Pedroso FE, Cheung MC, et al. Primary gastrointestinal tract lymphoma in the pediatric patient: review of 265 patients from the SEER registry. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:1956–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kemeng MM, Magrath IT, Brennan MF. The role of surgery in the management of American Burkitt’s lymphoma and its treatment. Ann Surg. 1982;196:82–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Koksal Y, Yalcin B, Uner A, et al. Primary testicular Burkitt lymphoma in a child. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2005;22:705–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kung FH, Schwartz CL, Ferree CR, et al. POG 8625: a randomized trial comparing chemotherapy with chemoradiotherapy for children and adolescents with Stages I, IIA, IIIA1 Hodgkin Disease; a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006;28:362–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kurosawa J, Matsunaga T, Shimaoka H. Burkitt lymphoma associated with large gastric folds, pancreatic involvement, and biliary tract obstruction. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2002;24:310–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    LaQuaglia MP. Lymphoma. In: Carachi R, Azmy A, Grosfeld JL, editors. Surgery of childhood tumors. London: Arnold; 1999.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    LaQuaglia MP, Stolar CJH, Krailo M, et al. The role of surgery in abdominal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: experience from the Children’s Cancer Study Group. J Pediatr Surg. 1992;27:230–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lefloch O, Donaldson DD, Kaplan HS. Pregnancy following oophoropexy and total nodal irradiation in women with hodgkin’s disease. Cancer. 1976;38:2263–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Levine JE, Harris RE, Loberiza Jr FR, et al. A comparison of allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation for lymphoblastic lymphoma. Blood. 2003;101:2476–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lin H-MJ, Teitell MA. Second malignancy after treatment of pediatric Hodgkin Disease. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2005;27:28–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lister TA, Crowther D, Sutcliffe SB, et al. Report of a committee convened to discuss the evaluation and staging of patients with Hodgkin’s disease: Cotswolds Meeting. J Clin Oncol. 1989;7:1630–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lorsbach RB, Shay-Seymore D, Moore J, et al. Clinicopathologic analysis of follicular lymphoma occurring in children. Blood. 2002;99:1959–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Magrath IT, Lwarga S, Carswell W, et al. Surgical reduction of tumor bulk in management of abdominal Burkitt’s lymphoma. Br Med J. 1974;2:308–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Marjanović B, Vujanić GM, Zamurović D, et al. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the uterus and CNS. Pediatr Neurol. 2000;23:69–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Marte A, Sabatino MD, Cautiero P, et al. Unexpected finding of laparoscopic appendectomy: appendix MALT lymphoma in children. Pediatr Surg Int. 2008;24(4):471–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Meadows AT, Obringer AC, Marrero O, et al. Second malignant neoplasms following childhood Hodgkin’s disease: treatment and splenectomy as risk factors. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1989;17:477–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Medary I, Steinherz LJ, Aronson DC, et al. Cardiac tamponade in the pediatric oncology population: treatment by percutaneous catheter drainage. J Pediatr Surg. 1996;1996:197–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mo JQ, Dimashkieh H, Mallery SR, et al. MALT lymphoma in children: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2004;7:407–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Monterroso V, Jaffe ES, Merino MJ, et al. Malignant lymphomas involving the ovary: a clinicopathologic analysis of 39 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1993;17:154–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Moon LD, Brenner C, Ancliff P, et al. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma presenting with uterine and renal enlargement in a young girl. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;34:277–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Murphy SB. Classification, staging and end results of treatment of childhood non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas: dissimilarities from lymphomas in adults. Semin Oncol. 1980;7:332–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nachman JB, Sposto R, Herzog P, et al. Randomized comparison of low-dose involved-field radiotherapy and no radiotherapy for children with Hodgkin’s disease who achieve a complete response to chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:3765–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nademanee A, Molina A, Dagis A, et al. Autologous stem-cell transplantation for poor-risk and relapsed intermediate- and high-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Clin Lymphoma. 2000;1:46–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ng YY, Healy JC, Vincent JM, et al. The radiology of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in childhood: a review of 80 cases. Clin Radiol. 1994;49:594–600.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Perger L, Lee EY, Shamberger RC. Management of children and adolescents with a critical airway due to compression by an anterior mediastinal mass. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43(11):1990–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pietsch JB, Shankar S, Ford C, et al. Obstructive jaundice secondary to lymphoma in childhood. J Pediatr Surg. 2001;36:1792–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Raj KA, Marks LB, Prosnitz RG. Late effects of breast radiotherapy in young women. Breast Dis. 2005–2006;23:53–65.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ramos G, Murao M, de Oliveira BM, et al. Primary hepatic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in children: a case report and review of the literature. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1997;28:370–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ravindra KV, Stringer MD, Prasad KR, et al. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma presenting with obstructive jaundice. Br J Surg. 2003;90:845–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rhodes MM, Delbeke D, Whitlock JA, et al. Utility of FDG-PET/CT in follow-up of children treated for Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006;28:300–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ricketts RR. Clinical management of anterior mediastinal tumors in children. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2001;10:161–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rosolen A, Pillon M, Garaventa A, et al. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma treated with a leukemia-like therapy: report of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology. Cancer. 2005;1104(10):335–9.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sandlund JT, Downing JR, Crist WM. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in childhood. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:1238–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Seidemann K, Tiemann M, Lauterbach I, et al. Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma with sclerosis in pediatric and adolescent patients: treatment and results from three therapeutic studies of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster group. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(9):1782–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sengupta SK, Everett VJ. Ovarian neoplasms in children and adolescents in Papua New Guinea. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1987;27:335–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shamberger RC. Preanesthetic evaluation of children with anterior mediastinal masses. Semin Pediatr Surg. 1999;8:61–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Shamberger RC, Weinstein HJ. The role of surgery in abdominal Burkitt’s lymphoma. J Pediatr Surg. 1992;27:236–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shamberger RC, Holzman RS, Griscom NT, et al. CT quantitation of tracheal cross-sectional area as a guide to the surgical and anesthetic management of children with anterior mediastinal masses. J Pediatr Surg. 1991;26:138–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shamberger RC, Holzman RS, Griscom NT, et al. Prospective evaluation by computed tomography and pulmonary function tests of children with mediastinal masses. Surgery. 1995;118:468–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Spitz MR, Sider JG, Johnson CC, et al. Ethnic patterns of Hodgkin’s disease incidence among children and adolescents in the United States, 1973–82. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986;76:235–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Stein H, Marafiati T, Foss HD, et al. Down regulation of BOB.1/OBF/1 and Oct2 in classical Hodgkin disease but not in lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin disease correlates with immunoglobulin transcription. Blood. 2001;97(2):496–501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Stein JE, Schwenn MR, Jacir NN, et al. Surgical restraint in Burkitt’s lymphoma in children. J Pediatr Surg. 1991;26:1273–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Thomas PR, Wirstanly D, Peckamn MJ, Austin DE, et al. Reproductive and endocrine function in patients with Hodgkin’s disease: effects of oophorepexy and irradiation. Br J Cancer. 1976;33:226–31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tzankov A, Zimpfer A, Pehrs AC, et al. Expression of B cell-markers in classical Hodgkin lymphoma: a tissue microarray analysis of 330 cases. Mod Pathol. 2003;16(11):1141–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Van de Shoot L, Aronson DC, Behrendt H, et al. The role of fire-needle aspiration cytology in children with persistent or suspicious lymphadenopathy. J Pediatr Surg. 2001;36:7–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Watanbe Y, Ito T, Horibe K, et al. Obstructive jaundice, an unusual initial manifestation of intraabdominal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in children: complications of percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage. J Pediatr Surg. 1997;32:650–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Whalen TV, LaQuaglia MP. The lymphomas: an update for surgeons. Semin Pediatr Surg. 1997;6:50–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Williams RS, Mendenhall N. Laparoscopic oophoropexy for preservation of ovarian function before pelvic node irradiation. Obstet Gynecol. 1992;80:541–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Williams RS, Littell RD, Mendenhall NP. Laparoscopic oophoropexy and ovarian function in the treatment of Hodgkin disease. Cancer. 1999;86:2138–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Yanchar NL, Bass J. Poor outcome of gastrointestinal perforations associated with childhood abdominal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. J Pediatr Surg. 1999;34:1169–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ziegler JL. Treatment results of 54 American patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma are similar to the African experience. N Engl J Med. 1977;297:75–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryRiley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations