Epidemiology of Childhood Tumours

  • Charles A. StillerEmail author


Cancer typically has an annual incidence of 150 per million children under 15 years of age in industrialised countries. Leukemia accounts for about one third of total incidence and CNS tumors (including non-malignant) for one quarter. Lymphomas, soft-tissue sarcomas, neuroblastoma and renal tumours each account for 5–10 %. Most cancers of most sites in adults are carcinomas but in children the pattern is strikingly different. The causes of most cases of childhood cancer remain unknown, but established risk factors include a wide range of rare genetic conditions, high birth weight, ionising radiation exposure and several specific infections. Five-year survival now exceeds 75 % in industrialised countries but is lower in less affluent countries. The health of long-term survivors, including the risk of second primary malignancy, is the subject of several large epidemiological studies. Mortality from cancer is now 20–30 per million children under 15 years of age in wealthy industrialised countries.


Cancer Child Incidence Survival Mortality Epidemiology Aetiology 


  1. 1.
    Birch JM, Marsden HB. A classification scheme for childhood cancer. Int J Cancer. 1987;40(5):620–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kramárová E, Stiller CA. The international classification of childhood cancer. Int J Cancer. 1996;68(6):759–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Steliarova-Foucher E, Stiller C, Lacour B, Kaatsch P. International classification of childhood cancer, third edition. Cancer. 2005;103(7):1457–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    German Childhood Cancer Registry. Jahresbericht annual report 2004 (1980–2003). Mainz: German Childhood Cancer Registry; 2004.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Michel G, von der Weid NX, Zwahlen M, Redmond S, Strippoli M-PF, Kuehni CE, et al. Incidence of childhood cancer in Switzerland: the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;50(1):46–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Salotti JA, Nanduri V, Pearce MS, Parker L, Lynn R, Windebank KP. Incidence and clinical features of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the UK and Ireland. Arch Dis Child. 2009;94(5):376–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marsden HB, Newton WA. New look at mesoblastic nephroma. J Clin Pathol. 1986;39(5):508–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barrantes JC, Muir KR, Toyn CE, Parkes SE, Cameron AH, Marsden HB, et al. Thirty-year population-based review of childhood renal tumours with an assessment of prognostic features including tumour DNA characteristics. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1993;21(1):24–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marsden HB, Birch JM, Swindell R. Germ cell tumours of childhood: a review of 137 cases. J Clin Pathol. 1981;34(8):879–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Parkes SE, Muir KR, Southern L, Cameron AH, Darbyshire PJ, Stevens MC. Neonatal tumours: a thirty-year population-based study. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1994;22(5):309–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hartley AL, Birch JM, Marsden HB, Reid H, Harris M, Blair V. Adrenal cortical tumours: epidemiological and familial aspects. Arch Dis Child. 1987;62(7):683–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rodriguez-Galindo C, Figueiredo BC, Zambetti GP, Ribeiro RC. Biology, clinical characteristics, and management of adrenocortical tumors in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2005;45(3):265–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Parkes SE, Muir KR, Al Sheyyab M, Cameron AH, Pincott JR, Raafat F, et al. Carcinoid tumours of the appendix in children 1957–1986: incidence, treatment and outcome. Br J Surg. 1993;80(4):502–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kaatsch P, Steliarova-Foucher E, Crocetti E, Magnani C, Spix C, Zambon P. Time trends of cancer incidence in European children (1978–1997): report from the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System project. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42(13):1961–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Linabery AM, Ross JA. Trends in childhood cancer incidence in the U.S. (1992–2004). Cancer. 2008;112(2):416–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baade PD, Youlden DR, Valery PC, Hassall T, Ward L, Green AC, et al. Trends in incidence of childhood cancer in Australia, 1983–2006. Br J Cancer. 2010;102(3):620–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kroll ME, Carpenter LM, Murphy MFG, Stiller CA. Effects of changes in diagnosis and registration on time trends in recorded childhood cancer incidence in Great Britain. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:1159–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Honjo S, Doran HE, Stiller CA, Ajiki W, Tsukuma H, Oshima A, et al. Neuroblastoma trends in Osaka, Japan, and Great Britain 1970–1994, in relation to screening. Int J Cancer. 2003;103(4):538–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Woods WG, Tuchman M, Robison LL, Bernstein M, Leclerc J-M, Brisson LC, et al. A population-based study of the usefulness of screening for neuroblastoma. Lancet. 1996;348(9043):1682–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schilling FH, Spix C, Berthold F, Erttmann R, Fehse N, Hero B, et al. Neuroblastoma screening at one year of age. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(14):1047–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Parkin DM. The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002. Int J Cancer. 2006;118(12):3030–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Williams D. Cancer after nuclear fallout: lessons from the Chernobyl accident. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002;2(7):543–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fuzik M, Prysyazhnyuk A, Shibata Y, Romanenko A, Fedorenko Z, Gulak L, et al. Thyroid cancer incidence in Ukraine: trends with reference to the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2011;50(1):47–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Smith MA, Freidlin B, Gloeckler Ries LA, Simon R. Trends in reported incidence of primary malignant brain tumors in children in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90(17):1269–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stiller CA. Epidemiology and genetics of childhood cancer. Oncogene. 2004;23(38):6429–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Strahm B, Malkin D. Hereditary cancer predisposition in children: genetic basis and clinical implications. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:2001–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lindor NM, McMaster ML, Lindor CJ, Greene MH. Concise handbook of familial cancer susceptibility syndromes. Second edition. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2008;38:1–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Scott RH, Stiller CA, Walker L, Rahman N. Syndromes and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities associated with Wilms tumour. J Med Genet. 2006;43(9):705–15.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stiller CA. Constitutional chromosomal abnormalities and childhood cancer. Ital J Pediatr. 2006;31(6):347–53.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hasle H. Pattern of malignant disorders in individuals with Down’s syndrome. Lancet Oncol. 2001;2(7):429–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Narod SA, Stiller C, Lenoir GM. An estimate of the heritable fraction of childhood cancer. Br J Cancer. 1991;63(6):993–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kraemer KH, Lee M-M, Andrews AD, Lambert WC. The role of sunlight and DNA repair in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. The xeroderma pigmentosum paradigm. Arch Dermatol. 1994;130(8):1018–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mourali N. Tunisia - Institut Salah-Azaiz, 1969–1982. In: Parkin DM, Stiller CA, Draper GJ, Bieber CA, Terracini B, Young JL, editors. International incidence of childhood cancer, IARC scientific publications, vol. 87. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 1988. p. 53–5.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Johnson KJ, Carozza SE, Chow EJ, Fox EE, Horel S, McLaughlin CC, et al. Parental age and risk of childhood cancer: a pooled analysis. Epidemiology. 2009;20(4):475–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Little J. Epidemiology of childhood cancer. Lyon: IARC; 1999.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stiller CA. Aetiology and epidemiology. In: Pinkerton CR, Plowman PN, Pieters R, editors. Paediatric oncology. London: Arnold; 2004. p. 3–24.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stewart A, Webb J, Hewitt D. A survey of childhood malignancies. Br Med J. 1958;1(5086):1495–508.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pearce MS, Salotti JA, Little MP, McHugh K, Lee C, Kim KP, et al. Radiation exposures from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours, an historical cohort study. Lancet. 2012;380(9840):499–505.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cardis E, Krewski D, Boniol M, Drozdovitch V, Darby SC, Gilbert ES, et al. Estimates of the cancer burden in Europe from radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:1224–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Little MP, Wakeford R, Kendall GM. Updated estimates of the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain that may be caused by natural background ionising radiation. J Radiol Prot. 2009;29(4):467–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ahlbom A, Day N, Feychting M, Roman E, Skinner J, Dockerty J, et al. A pooled analysis of magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. Br J Cancer. 2000;83(5):692–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mezei G, Kheifets L. Selection bias and its implications for case-control studies: a case study of magnetic field exposure and childhood leukaemia. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35(2):397–406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kheifets L, Ahlbom A, Crespi CM, Draper G, Hagihara J, Lowenthal RM, et al. Pooled analysis of recent studies on magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. Br J Cancer. 2010;103(7):1128–35.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schüz J. Exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of childhood cancer: update of the epidemiological evidence. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2011;107(3):339–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Teepen JC, van Dijck JAAM. Impact of high electromagnetic field levels on childhood leukemia incidence. Int J Cancer. 2012;131(4):769–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mezei G, Gadallah M, Kheifets L. Residential magnetic field exposure and childhood brain cancer: a meta-analysis. Epidemiology. 2008;19(3):424–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kheifets L, Ahlbom A, Crespi CM, Feychting M, Johansen C, Monroe J, et al. A pooled analysis of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and childhood brain tumors. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172(7):752–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    de Martel C, Ferlay J, Franceschi S, Vignat J, Bray F, Forman D, et al. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2008: a review and synthetic analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(6):607–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chien Y-C, Jan C-F, Kuo H-S, Chen C-J. Nationwide hepatitis B vaccination program in Taiwan: effectiveness in the 20 years after it was launched. Epidemiol Rev. 2006;28:126–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gwack J, Park SK, Lee E-H, Park B, Choi Y, Yoo K-Y. Hepatitis B vaccination and liver cancer mortality reduction in Korean children and adolescents. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(9):2205–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    McNally RJQ, Eden TOB. An infectious aetiology for childhood acute leukaemia: a review of the evidence. Br J Haematol. 2004;127(3):243–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kinlen L. Childhood leukaemia, nuclear sites, and population mixing. Br J Cancer. 2011;104(1):12–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Greaves M. Infection, immune responses and the aetiology of childhood leukaemia. Nat Rev Cancer. 2006;6(3):193–203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Martin RM, Gunnell D, Owen CG, Smith GD. Breast-feeding and childhood cancer: a systematic review with metaanalysis. Int J Cancer. 2005;117(6):1020–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Urayama KY, Buffler PA, Gallagher ER, Ayoob JM, Ma X. A meta-analysis of the association between day-care attendance and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;339(3):718–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Paramesh A, Cannon R, Buell JF. Malignancies in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients: epidemiology, risk factors, and prophylactic approaches. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2010;15(5):621–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Troisi R, Hatch EE, Titus-Ernstoff L, Hyer M, Palmer JR, Robboy SJ, et al. Cancer risk in women prenatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol. Int J Cancer. 2007;121(2):356–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lightfoot T, Bunch K, Ansell P, Murphy M. Ovulation induction, assisted conception and childhood cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41(5):715–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Raimondi S, Pedotti P, Taioli E. Meta-analysis of cancer incidence in children born after assisted reproductive technologies. Br J Cancer. 2005;93(9):1053–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Källén B, Finnström O, Lindam A, Nilsson E, Nygren KG, Olausson PO. Cancer risk in children and young adults conceived by in vitro fertilization. Pediatrics. 2010;126(2):270–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Linet MS, Wacholder S, Zahm SH. Interpreting epidemiologic research: lessons from studies of childhood cancer. Pediatrics. 2005;112(1):218–32.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Pollack IF, Jakacki RI. Childhood brain tumors: epidemiology, current management and future directions. Nat Rev Neurol. 2011;7(9):495–506.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Narod SA, Hawkins MM, Robertson CM, Stiller CA. Congenital anomalies and childhood cancer in Great Britain. Am J Hum Genet. 1997;60(3):474–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fisher PG, Reynolds P, Von Behren J, Carmichael SL, Rasmussen SA, Shaw GM. Cancer in children with nonchromosomal birth defects. J Pediatr. 2012;160(6):978–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Carozza SE, Langlois PH, Miller EA, Canfield M. Are children with birth defects at higher risk of childhood cancers? Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175(12):1217–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Valery PC, Holly EA, Sleigh AC, Williams G, Kreiger N, Bain C. Hernias and Ewing’s sarcoma family of tumours: a pooled analysis and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2005;6(7):485–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Caughey RW, Michels KB. Birth weight and childhood leukemia: a meta-analysis and review of the current evidence. Int J Cancer. 2009;124(11):2658–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    O’Neill KA, Bunch KJ, Vincent TJ, Spector LG, Moorman AV, Murphy MFG. Immunophenotype and cytogenetic characteristics in the relationship between birth weight and childhood leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012;58:7–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Harder T, Plagemann A, Harder A. Birth weight and subsequent risk of childhood primary brain tumors: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;168(4):366–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Harder T, Plagemann A, Harder A. Birth weight and risk of neuroblastoma: a meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39(3):746–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Spector LG, Puumala SE, Carozza SE, Chow EJ, Fox EE, Horel S, et al. Cancer risk among children with very low birth weights. Pediatrics. 2009;124(1):96–104.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Murphy MFG, Whiteman D, Hey K, Griffith M, Gill L, Goldacre MJ, et al. Childhood cancer incidence in a cohort of twin babies. Br J Cancer. 2001;84(11):1460–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Murphy MFG, Bunch KJ, Chen B, Hemminki K. Reduced occurrence of childhood cancer in twins compared to singletons: protection but by what mechanism? Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;51(1):62–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Arora RS, Kontopantelis E, Alston RD, Eden TO, Geraci M, Birch JM. Relationship between height at diagnosis and bone tumours in young people: a meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 2011;22(5):681–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Stiller C. Childhood cancer in Britain: incidence, survival, mortality. In press ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ries LAG, Harkins D, Krapcho M, Mariotto A, Miller BA, Feuer EJ, et al. SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2003. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute; 2006.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sankila R, Martos Jiménez MC, Miljus D, Pritchard-Jones K, Steliarova-Foucher E, Stiller C. Geographical comparison of cancer survival in European children (1988–1997): report from the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System project. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42(13):1972–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nandakumar A, Anantha N, Appaji L, Swamy K, Mukherjee G, Venugopal T, et al. Descriptive epidemiology of childhood cancers in Bangalore, India. Cancer Causes Control. 1996;7(4):405–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Magnani C, Pastore G, Coebergh JWW, Viscomi S, Spix C, Steliarova-Foucher E. Trends in survival after childhood cancer in Europe, 1978–1997: report from the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System project (ACCIS). Eur J Cancer. 2006;42(13):1981–2005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gatta G, Capocaccia R, Stiller C, Kaatsch P, Berrino F, Terenziani M, et al. Childhood cancer survival trends in Europe: a EUROCARE Working Group Study. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(16):3742–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Baba S, Ioka A, Tsukuma H, Noda H, Ajiki W, Iso H. Incidence and survival trends for childhood cancer in Osaka, Japan, 1973–2001. Cancer Sci. 2010;101(3):787–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Baade PD, Youlden DR, Valery PC, Hassall T, Ward L, Green AC, et al. Population-based survival estimates for childhood cancer in Australia during the period 1997–2006. Br J Cancer. 2010;103(11):1663–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Linabery AM, Ross JA. Childhood and adolescent cancer survival in the US by race and ethnicity for the diagnostic period 1975–1999. Cancer. 2008;113(9):2575–96.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Stiller CA. Centralised treatment, entry to trials and survival. Br J Cancer. 1994;70(2):352–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Stiller CA, Passmore SJ, Kroll ME, Brownbill PA, Wallis JC, Craft AW. Patterns of care and survival for patients aged under 40 years with bone sarcoma in Britain, 1980–1994. Br J Cancer. 2006;94(1):22–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Stiller CA, Kroll ME, Pritchard-Jones K. Population survival from childhood cancer in Britain during 1978–2005 by eras of entry to clinical trials. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(9):2464–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Inskip PD, Curtis RE. New malignancies following childhood cancer in the United States, 1973–2002. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:2233–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Reulen RC, Frobisher C, Winter DL, Kelly J, Lancashire ER, Stiller CA, et al. Long-term risks of subsequent primary neoplasms among survivors of childhood cancer. JAMA. 2011;305(22):2311–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Robison LL, Green DM, Hudson M, Meadows AT, Mertens AC, Packer RJ, et al. Long-term outcomes of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Results from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer. 2005;104(11 Suppl):2557–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Taylor A, Hawkins M, Griffiths A, Davies H, Douglas C, Jenney M, et al. Long-term follow-up of survivors of childhood cancer in the UK. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2004;42(2):161–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Boice JD, Tawn EJ, Winther JF, Donaldson SS, Green DM, Mertens AC, et al. Genetic effects of radiotherapy for childhood cancer. Health Phys. 2003;85(1):65–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Armstrong GT, Liu Q, Yasui Y, Neglia JP, Leisenring W, Robison LL, et al. Late mortality among 5-year survivors of childhood cancer: a summary from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(14):2328–38.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Diller L, Chow EJ, Gurney JG, Hudson MM, Kadin-Lottick NS, Kawashima TI, et al. Chronic disease in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort: a review of published findings. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(14):2339–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Signorello LB, Mulvihill JJ, Green DM, Munro HM, Stovall M, Weathers RE, et al. Congenital anomalies in the children of cancer survivors: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(3):239–45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Reulen RC, Winter DL, Frobisher C, Lancashire ER, Stiller CA, Jenney ME, et al. Long-term cause-specific mortality among survivors of childhood cancer. JAMA. 2010;304(2):172–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rebholz CE, Reulen RC, Toogood AA, Frobisher C, Lancashire ER, Winter DL, et al. Health care use of long-term survivors of childhood cancer: the British childhood cancer survivor study. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(31):4181–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Winther JF, Olsen JH, Wu H, Shyr Y, Mulvihill JJ, Stovall M, et al. Genetic disease in the children of Danish survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(1):27–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Garwicz S, Anderson H, Olsen JH, Falck Winther J, Sankila R, Langmark F, et al. Late and very late mortality in 5-year survivors of childhood cancer: changing pattern over four decades-experience from the Nordic countries. Int J Cancer. 2012;131(7):1659–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC cancer base no. 10 [Internet]; 2010. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; Available from:, Accessed 18 May 2012.
  100. 100.
    Mathers CD, Fat DM, Inoue M, Rao C, Lopez AD. Counting the dead and what they died from: an assessment of the global status of cause of death data. Bull World Health Organ. 2005;83(3):171–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Childhood Cancer Research Group, Department of PaediatricsUniversity of OxfordOxfordEngland, UK

Personalised recommendations