Dynamical Analysis of Onsager Reciprocal Relations (ORR)
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The original derivation of the Onsager reciprocal relations requires that the generalized flux in the expression of energy production should be the time derivative of system state variable. However, it was found that the commonly selected fluxes can hardly meet this requirement. In this chapter, the unambiguous definition of the generalized forces and fluxes in the entropy production is presented from the thermomass viewpoint. The linear regression of fluctuation is actually a balance between the inertia force and the friction force. Therefore, the time derivative of state variables is the inertia force rather than the driving force. The state variables are thereby defined as the average displacement of transported quantities during fluctuation. They have the length unit, which is in agreement with the displacement of heat proposed by Onsager. For the coupled transport processes, the reciprocal relations are manifested to be the symmetry of the coefficient matrix between the friction forces and the drift velocities. They can be macroscopically derived through the principles of Galilean invariance and the third law of Newtonian dynamics.
KeywordsHeat Flux Friction Force Drift Velocity Entropy Production Generalize Force
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