Conclusion and Outlook

  • Alfred Oswald
  • Jens Köhler
  • Roland Schmitt


Complexity is a universal phenomenon and contributes significantly to the creation of new things in our world. Complex systems can no longer be predictably determined, but sometimes produce something entirely new, which may result in the next stage of development: “The whole is more than the sum of its parts”. Complexity can also be destructive - and consequently, “the whole is then less than the sum of its parts”.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfred Oswald
    • 1
  • Jens Köhler
    • 2
  • Roland Schmitt
    • 3
  1. 1.IFST – Institute for Social Technologies GmbHStolbergGermany
  2. 2.BASF SELudwigshafenGermany
  3. 3.WeinheimGermany

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