This chapter looks into the interplay of indigenous education and global citizenship in the Philippines. The country is one of the first nations in Asia to have passed a law recognizing the specific needs of its indigenous people (IP). In 1997, the Indigenous People’s Rights Act was passed into law to ensure that IPs have access to basic health and education. But much has remained wanting in its implementation even after two decades. This chapter spells out first the historical development and the emergent conceptualization of indigenous education insofar as national policy is concerned. After which, local experiences of indigenous education are considered – particularly, the case of a local school in Bukidnon, the Apu Palamguwan Cultural Education Center; and an institutional program, the Philippine’s Response to Indigenous Peoples’ and Muslim Education. The chapter concludes by considering whether or not the concept of global citizenship is understood at the level of both policy and local experience.
- Global citizenship
- Philippine policy
- Indigenous education
- Indigenous peoples
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The sincerity of IPRA has also been called into question for “being framed within the Regalian Doctrine” (Rovillos and Tauli-Corpuz 2012, 137). Official recognition of ancestral domains lies first and foremost with the State, which may have other interests to protect.
One development that could possibly improve the situation is the ratification of the ILO Convention (No. 169) on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples. As a legally binding document, ILO C169 introduces supervisory mechanisms and technical assistance that will compel the Philippines to give due attention to the needs of IPs. Ratification will complement the legal force of IPRA (see Candelaria 2012).
Other vulnerable sectors include out-of-school youth and differently abled youth.
The policies discussed in this section have mainly concerned the Department of Education. A parallel effort involving transmission of intangible cultural heritage is the School of Living Traditions (SLT) program of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA). Usually, implemented in a non-formal manner, SLTs are spaces where a “living master/cultural bearer or culture specialist teaches skills and techniques of doing a traditional art or craft” (Telavera 2011: 1).
To put this novelty in perspective, the curriculum it replaced (Restructured Basic Education Curriculum) had a clear citizenship education dimension called “makabayan” (patriotic), which had four components: social studies; technology and home economics and livelihood; music, arts, physical education and health; and values education. The values inculcated in these classes were patriotism, humanitarianism, environmentalism, and godliness (Almonte-Acosta 2011). Arguably, a global outlook, at that time, had not been fully articulated yet.
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Cornelio, J.S., de Castro, D.F.T. (2016). The State of Indigenous Education in the Philippines Today. In: Xing, J., Ng, Ps. (eds) Indigenous Culture, Education and Globalization. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48159-2_9
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