Abstract

Urban futures are typically conceptualized as starting anew; an urban future is usually represented as a quest for an ideal state, replacing the status quo with visionary statement about ‘better’ futures. Repeatedly, propositions reinvent the way we live, work and play. The major urban innovations for the changing cityscape from the last 100 years, however, have opportunistically taken advantage of unprecedented technical developments in infrastructure rather than be drawn from architectural inventions in their right, such as telecommunications, services, utilities, point-to-point rapid transit including the elevator. Howard’s Garden City therefore presaged the suburb, just as Le Corbusier et al. proposed the erasure of significant sections of inner city Barcelona and Paris to replace them with the newly contrived towers; the city reformed as the significantly more mobile and dense ‘Ville Radieuse’. More recently Masdar emerged from virgin sand and Milton Keynes from pristine pasture, serving as counterpoints to the paradigm of erasure and rebuild. Despite all these advances in technology and science, little has changed in the paradigm of urban form; the choices we have today are largely restricted to the suburban house or the apartment in the tower. Should the “next city” offer an alternative vision for the future, and what new design processes are required to realize the next city?

Keywords

Urban futures Complex adaptive systems Parametric urbanism 

References

  1. 1.
    Dostoevsky, F.: Notes from Underground. Epoch, St. Petersburg (1864)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burnham, D.H.: Architect, Planner of Cities, vol. 2, p. 147. Houghton Mifflin (Burnham, D.H. (1907) quoted in: C. Moore (1921))Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    McBrien, R.P.: Lives of the Pope. HarperCollins, London (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bacon, E.: Design of Cities. Penguin, London (1976)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Holland, J.: Biology’s gift to complex world. Sci. Exploring Life Inspiring Innov. 22(9), 36–43 (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Monchaux, N. et al.: Local code: the critical use of geographic information systems in parametric urban design. In: Proceedings of ACADIA Life in: Formation, New York, NY (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lerner, J.: Urban Acupuncture. Island Press, Washington, DC (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Casagrande, M.: Cross-over architecture and third generation City. Epifanio 9 (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Holland, J.: Hidden Order: How Adaptation Builds Complexity. Addison-Wesley, Redwood City (1996)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lansing, S.J.: Complex Adaptive Systems. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 32, 183–204 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    McDonnell, M., Pickett, S. (eds.): Human as Components of Ecosystems: The Ecology of Subtle Human Effects and Populated Areas. Springer, New York (1993)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alberti, M., Marzluff, J.M., Shulenberger, E., Bradley, G., Ryan, C., Zumbrunnen, C.: Integrating humans into ecology: opportunities and challenges for studying urban ecosystems. Bioscience 53(12), 1169–1179 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hwang, S.W.: The implications of the nonlinear paradigm for integrated environmental design and planning. J. Plan. Lit. 11, 167–180 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Innes, J.E., Booher, D.: Consensus building and complex adaptive systems. J. Am. Plan. Assoc. 65(4), 412–423 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Epstein, J.M.: Agent-based computational model and generative social science. Complexity 4, 41–60 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Karakiewicz, J.: Air quality, social space and urban form: a case study of mong kok railway station. In: Proceedings from Conference on Technology and Sustainability in the Built Environment. King Saud University Press, Riyadh (2010)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wooldridge, M.: An Introduction to MultiAgent Systems. Wiley, Chichester (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Salamon, T.: Design of Agent-Based Models. Bruckner Publishing, Repin (2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gunderson, L.H., Holling, C.S. (eds.): Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems. Island Press, Washington, DC (2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Portugali, J.: Self-Organization and the City. Springer, Berlin (2000)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burton, S.: Chaos, self-organization, and psychology. Am. Psychol. 49, 5–14 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hollings, C.S.: Surprise for science, resilience for ecosystem, and incentives for people. Ecol. Appl. 6, 733–735 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hollings, C.S.: Resilience of ecosystems; local surprise and global change. In: Clark, W.C., Munn, R.E. (eds.) Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, pp. 292–317. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1986)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Allen, P.M., Torrens, P.M.: Knowledge and complexity. Futures 37(7), 581–584 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schnabel, M., Karakiewicz, J.: Rethinking parameters in urban design. Int. J. Archit. Comput. 5(1), 84–98 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clarke, C., Anzalone, P.: Architectural applications of complex adaptive systems. In: Klinger, K. (ed.) ACADIA 22 Connecting – Crossroads of Digital Discourse, pp. 324 – 335. Ball State University, Indianapolis, (2003)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Manesh, S.V., Massimo, T.: Sustainable urban morphology emergence via complex adaptive system analysis: sustainable design in existing context. Procedia Eng. 21, 89–97 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wootton, B.: Cities as complex adaptive systems (2004) http://www.generation5.org/content/2004/complexCities.asp
  29. 29.
    Gonzales, J.: Rethinking the galapagos island as complex social-ecological system: implication for conservation and management. Ecol. Soc. 13(2), 13 (2008)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Allen, P.M., Torrens, P.: Knowledge and Complexity (introduction) in Futures 37, pp. 581–584 (2005) www.sciencedirect.com
  31. 31.
    Batty, M., Torrens, P.: Modelling Prediction in a Complex World in Futures 37, pp. 745–766 (2005) www.sciencedirect.com
  32. 32.
    Allen, P.M., Strathern, M.: Models, Knowledge Creation and Their Llimits in Futures 37, pp. 729–744 (2005) www.sciencedirect.com

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations