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Applications for Drug Assays

  • Sibel A. Ozkan
  • Jean-Michel Kauffmann
  • Petr Zuman
Part of the Monographs in Electrochemistry book series (MOEC)

Abstract

The choice of an appropriate technique for the determination of a drug or a mixture of drug compounds is mainly governed by the sample matrix complexity, the analyte concentration, and the sample treatment time. Compared to optical, mass, and thermal methods, electrochemical techniques are especially attractive because they offer unique detection capabilities with remarkable selectivity and sensitivity for a moderate cost [1–17]. The final selection of an analytical technique depends on the intrinsic structure and physicochemical properties of the studied analyte. Potentiometric electrodes have been described for the selective determination of pharmaceuticals, but voltammetric methods are most generally developed due to their inherent high sensitivity and versatility provided that the studied drug compound is electroactive.

Abbreviations

[Cu4(apyhist)4]4+

Cyclic-tetrameric copper (II) species containing the ligand (4 imidazolyl) ethylene-2-amino-1-ethylpyridine

5-HT

5-Hydroxytriptamine (serotonin)

AC

Alternating current

AChE

Acetylcholinesterase

ACP

Alternating current polarography

ACS

Alumina-coated silica

ACV

Alternating current voltammetry

AdSV

Adsorptive stripping voltammetry

AgLAF-AgSAE

Silver liquid amalgam film-silver solid amalgam annular band electrode

AgNPs

Silver nanoparticles

AHNSA

4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene sulfonic acid

ARS

Alizarine Red S

ASV

Adsorptive stripping voltammetry

BDDE

Boron-doped diamond electrode

BPPGE

Basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrode

CA

Chronoamperometry

CAdSV

Cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry

CC

Chronocoulometry

CCE

Carbon-ceramic electrode

CD

Cyclodextrin

CDP

Cyclodextrin prepolymer

CE

Carbon electrode

CFME

Carbon fiber microelectrode

CILE

Carbon ionic liquid electrode

Cl

Cardiolipin

CNF

Carbon nanofiber

CNT

Carbon nanotube

CNT-mer

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes bearing terminal monomeric unit

CNTPE

Carbon nanotube paste electrode

Co(DMG)2ClPy

Chloro(pyridine)bis(dimethylglyoximato)cobalt(III)

CoHCNFe

Cobalt hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles

CPC

Controlled potential coulometry

CPE

Carbon paste electrode

CP-TNMCPE

Carbon paste electrode modified by meso-tetrakis(3-methylphenyl) cobalt porphyrin and TiO2 nanoparticles

CSV

Cathodic stripping voltammetry

CTS CHIT

Chitosan

CV

Cyclic voltammetry

Cys

Cysteine

D50wx2

Dowex50wx2

DCP

Direct current polarography

DDP

3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone

DME

Dropping mercury electrode

DMF

Dimethyl formamide

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DPAdASV

Differential pulse adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetry

DPAdCSV

Differential-pulse adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry

DPAdSV

Differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry

DPASV

Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

DPAV

Differential pulse anodic voltammetry

DPE

Diamond paste electrode

DPP

Differential pulse polarography

DPSV

Differential pulse stripping voltammetry

DPV

Differential pulse voltammetry

dsDNA

Double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid

DTPS SAM-ME

Au DTPS self-assembled monolayer modified electrode

EBNBHCNPE

2 2′-[1,2-ethanediylbis (nitriloethylidyne)]-bis-hydroquinone carbon nanotube paste electrode

ECD

Electrochemical detection

EIS

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

EMIMBF4

1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

EPPGE

Edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode

ERGO

Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide

FCDCNTPE

Carbon nanotube paste electrode modified with ferrocene dicarboxylic acid

FCMCNTPE

Ferrocene modified carbon nanotubes paste electrode

Fe (III)-SBMCPE

Fe (III) schiff base modified carbon paste electrode

FeNAZ-CH

Iron ion-doped natrolite zeolite

FFT CV

Fast Fourier transform cyclic voltammetry

FIA

Flow injection analysis

FSCV

Fast scan cyclic voltammetry

GAMCS NPs

Gold-aminomercaptothiadiazole core-shell nanoparticles

GCE

Glassy carbon electrode

GCPE

Glassy carbon paste electrode

GE AuE

Gold electrode

GluOx

Glutamate oxidase

GNMCPE

Gold nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode

GNP AuNP

Gold nanoparticle

GNSs

Graphene nanosheets

GO

Graphene oxide

GPE

Graphene paste electrode

GPGE

Gold modified pencil graphite electrode

Gr GrO

Graphene

GS

Graphene sheets

GS-PTCA

Graphene sheets and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid

GSR

Graphite silicone rubber

HMDE

Hanging mercury drop electrode

HNCMS

Hollow nitrogen-doped carbon microspheres

HRP HP

Horseradish peroxidase

IL

Ionic liquid

ITO

Indium tin oxide

LAdCV

Linear adsorptive cyclic voltammogram

LC

Liquid chromatography

lcys

l-cysteine

LOD

Limit of detection

LOQ

Limit of quantification

LSAdCSV

Linear sweep adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry

LSP

Linear sweep polarography

LSV

Linear sweep voltammetry

m-AgSAE

Mercury meniscus modified silver solid amalgam electrode

MCCE

Modified carbon composite electrode

MCPE

Modified carbon paste electrode

ME

Mercury electrode

Me-CoSal

Cobalt methyl salophen

MIP

Molecularly imprinted polymer

MMT-Ca

Montmorillonite-Ca

MRT

Main residence time

MWCNT

Multiwalled carbon nanotube

MWCNT-COOH cMWCNT

Carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes

MWCNTILEE

Multiwall carbon nanotubes ionic liquid electrode

MWCNTPE

Multiwalled carbon nanotube paste electrode

NCPE

Nafion-incorporated carbon paste electrode

NdHCF

Neodymium hexacyanoferrate film

N-DHPBMCNTPE

N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)-3,5-dinitrobenzamide modified carbon nanotube paste electrode

Nf

Nafion

NGCE

Nafion-coated glassy carbon electrode

NiHCF-NP

Nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticle

NiHCF-NP

Nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles

Ni-NP

Nickel phosphate nanoparticles

NiONPs

Nickel oxide nanoparticles

NIP

Non-imprinted polymer

nPt-MWCNTPE

Pt-nanoparticles modified multiwalled carbon nanotube paste electrode

NSAIDs

Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs

o-MWCNT

Oxidized multiwall carbon nanotube

OPG-CoPc

Ordinary pyrolytic graphite-cobalt phthalocyanine

p-(AHNSA)

Poly(4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene sulfonic acid)

PAA

Poly(acrylic) acid

p-ABA

p-aminobenzoic acid

PA-MNPs

PEGylated arginine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

p-AMTa

3-Amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole

PANI PA

Polyaniline

p-APMCNTPE

Multiwall carbon nanotubes paste electrode modified with p-aminophenol

p-CACNTPE

p-chloranil-carbon nanotubes paste electrode

p-CAMCNTPE

Carbon nanotubes paste electrode modified with p-chloranil

PCFE

Nanocrystalline graphite-like pyrolytic carbon film electrode

PCPE

Pseudo-carbon paste electrode

PdNPs

Palladium nanoparticles

PDR-PGE

Dendrimer modified disposable graphite electrode

PEDOT

Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)

PFMCPE

Polymer film modified carbon paste electrode

PGA

Poly-glutamic acid

PGE

Pencil graphite electrode

PIGE

Paraffin wax impregnated graphite electrode

PMB

Poly(methylene blue)

PMWCNTPE

Pretreated multiwalled carbon nanotube paste electrode

PNT

l-diphenylalanine nanotubes

PoAP

poly(o-aminophenol)

poly(DA)

Diglycolic acid polymer

poly(PVC)

Poly(pyrocatechol violet)

Polyhis

Polyhistidine

polyTTBA/PS

Poly [2,2′:5′,2″-terthiophene-3′-(p-benzoic acid)] conducting polymer—phosphatidylserine

polyTTBA

Carboxylic acid group-functionalized conducting polymer

PPGE

Pretreated pencil graphite electrode

PSS

poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate-co-acrylic acid)

PtE

Platinum electrode

PVF

Poly(vinylferrocenium)

PyCE

Pyrolytic carbon electrodes

rGO

Reduced graphene oxide

RTIL

Room temperature ionic liquids

SBAP

Poly(2-hydroxy-5-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]benzoic acid) film

SDS

Sodium dodecyl sulfate

SiAlNb

Sol–gel silica

SiC-NPs

Silicon carbide nanoparticles

SMDE

Static mercury drop electrode

SPCE

Screen-printed carbon electrodes

SPE

Screen-printed electrode

SPGCE

Screen-printed glassy carbon electrode

SWAdASV

Square wave adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetry

SWAdCSV

Square-wave adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry

SWAdSV

Square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry

SWASV

Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry

SWCNT

Single walled carbon nanotube

SWP

Square wave polarography

SWV

Square wave voltammetry

TNGCE

Tellurium-nanowire-coated glassy carbon electrodes

TP

Tast polarography

Tyr

Tyrosinase

ZCP

Zero current potentiometry

ZnSNP

ZnS nanoparticle

ZnTNP

Zn-tetranaphthaloporphyrin

ZnTPP

Zn-tetraphenyl porphyrin

ZnTSPP

Zn-5,10,15,20-tetra(4-sulfophenyl)porphyrin

β-CD

Beta-cyclodextrin

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Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sibel A. Ozkan
    • 1
  • Jean-Michel Kauffmann
    • 2
  • Petr Zuman
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Analytical ChemistryAnkara UniversityTandogan, AnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of PharmacyUniversité Libre de BruxellesBrusselsBelgium
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular ScienceClarkson UniversityPotsdamUSA

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