Crowdsourcing for Large-Scale Software Development

  • Wei Li
  • Wei-Tek Tsai
  • Wenjun WuEmail author
Part of the Progress in IS book series (PROIS)


Large scale software systems with increasing complexity, variability and uncertainty, brings about grand challenges for traditional software engineering. Recently, crowdsourcing practices in the domain of software development such as Apple App Store and TopCoder have exhibited a promising and viable solution to the issues. The use of a crowd for developing software is predicted to take its place alongside established methodologies, such as agile, global software development, service-oriented computing, and the traditional waterfall. In this chapter, we propose a conceptual framework for the emerging crowdsourcing development methodology. We define the fundamental principles, software architecture, development process, and maturity model of the methodology for crowd workforce motivation, coordination and governance.


Software Development Software Development Process Agile Method Global Software Development Software Ecosystem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Doan, A., Ramakrishnan, R., Halevy, A.Y.: Crowdsourcing systems on the world-wide web. Commun. ACM 54(4), 86–96 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    App Store: (2014). Accessed on 18 Aug 2014
  3. 3.
    Northrop, L., Feiler, P., Gabriel, R.P., Goodenough, J., Linger, R., Longstaff, T., Kazman, R., Klein, M., Schmidt, D., Sullivan, K., et al.: \(\{\)Ultra-Large-Scale Systems\(\}\)-the software challenge of the future (2006)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Martin, R.C.: Agile Software Development: Principles, Patterns, and Practices. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Herbsleb, J.D., Moitra, D.: Global software development. IEEE Softw. 18(2), 16–20 (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Raymond, E.: The cathedral and the bazaar. Knowl. Technol. Policy 12(3), 23–49 (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lakhani, K., Garvin, D.A., Lonstein, E.: Topcoder (a): developing software through crowdsourcing. Harvard Business School General Management Unit Case (610–032) (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Andy, L., Raugh, A., Erickson, K., Grayzeck, E.J., Knopf, W., Lydon, M., Lakhani, K., Crusan, J., Morgan, T.H.: The NASA tournament laboratory (“NTL”): improving data access at PDS while spreading joy and engaging students through 16 micro-contests. In: AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts, vol. 44 (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barlow, J.B., Giboney, J.S., Keith, M.J., Wilson, D.W., Schuetzler, R.M., Lowry, P.B., Vance, A.: Overview and guidance on agile development in large organizations. Commun. Assoc. Inf. Syst. 29(1), 2 (2011)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xu, J., Christley, S., Madey, G.: Application of social network analysis to the study of open source software (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Madey, G., Freeh, V., Tynan, R.: Modeling the free/open source software community: a quantitative investigation, In: Free/Open Source Software, Development, pp. 203–221 (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Resnick, M., Myers, B., Nakakoji, K., Shneiderman, B., Pausch, R., Selker, T., Eisenberg, M.: Design principles for tools to support creative thinking (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lakhani, K.R., Boudreau, K.J., Loh, P.R., Backstrom, L., Baldwin, C., Lonstein, E., Lydon, M., MacCormack, A., Arnaout, R.A., Guinan, E.C.: Prize-based contests can provide solutions to computational biology problems. Nat. Biotechnol. 31(2), 108–111 (2013)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Spinellis, D.: Don’t install software by hand. IEEE Softw. 29(4), 86–87 (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wu, W., Tsai, W.T., Li, W.: An evaluation framework for software crowdsourcing. Front. Comput. Sci. 7(5), 694–709 (2013)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Corchón, L.C.: The theory of contests: a survey. Rev. Econ. Des. 11(2), 69–100 (2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Harman, M.: The current state and future of search based software engineering. In: 2007 Future of Software Engineering, pp. 342–357. IEEE Computer Society (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Computer Science and EngineeringBeihang UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of Computing Informatics and Decision Systems EngineeringArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations