General Overview



All CVMs are NOT the same; they are all significantly different from each other, with entirely different clinical behavior and prognoses. Therefore, the CVM is a vascular disorder of extreme variety with a notorious reputation for “totally unpredictable” behavior.

Hence, correct understanding of two new classifications, Hamburg classification and ISSVA classification, which are mutually complimentary, one adding embryological and the other hemodynamic criteria for CVMs, is required for proper diagnosis and management of every CVM lesion.

It is extremely important for clinicians to be aware of extratruncular CVM lesions with the evolutional potential to grow and proliferate due to its mesenchymal cell characteristics and also truncular lesions with hemodynamic characteristics affecting each involved vascular component.

Correct identification and confirmation of each CVM lesion and its embryological subtype is crucial for contemporary management.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Byung-Boong Lee
    • 1
    • 2
  • James Laredo
    • 3
  • Richard Neville
    • 4
  1. 1.Center for the Lymphedema and Vascular MalformationsGeorge Washington UniversityWashington, DCUSA
  2. 2.Uniformed ServicesUniversity of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of SurgeryGeorge Washington University Medical CenterWashington, DCUSA
  4. 4.Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular SurgeryGeorge Washington University Medical CenterWashington, DCUSA

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