Laser Therapy of Superficial and Deep Capillary Malformation (CM): Principles of Laser Technology



The difference between laser light and other light sources like intense pulsed light (IPL), LED, and xenon arc lamps is that laser is monochromatic, collimated, and coherent. This means that the tissue interaction is specific and the light distribution is calculable. Generally, one can say in the visible the shorter the wavelength, the more specific the absorption coefficient and, in the near infrared, the longer the wavelength, the more water absorption. Furthermore, the longer the wavelength, the lower the scattering and back scattering; the longer the pulse duration, the more thermal effects. With changing of the biophysical properties of the overlying tissue through compression and/or cooling, one can change the basic absorption of these layers. This allows bedside puncture techniques to make the tissue transparent and bring laser irradiation into deeper tissues. So one has the following application principles:
  1. 1.

    Transcutaneous with/without compression and/or cooling

  2. 2.

    Impression, interstitial, and paravasal application

  3. 3.

    Intraluminal as endovenous, intra-arterial, and intracystic techniques

  4. 4.

    Endoscopic in noncontact, contact, and impression techniques



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wissenschaft und Forschung, Lasermedizin, Elisabeth KlinikBerlinGermany

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