Management of Deep Vein Aplasia, Hypoplasia, and Lateral Marginal Vein



Aplasia and hypoplasia of deep veins as well as persistence of lateral marginal vein are truncular anomalies of development of the main venous system. Aplasia and hypoplasia may happen in superficial femoral, in popliteal, and in common femoral vein: inferior cava and also iliac veins may be involved. Those defects are mainly well tolerated. Surgical treatment is not possible. Hypoplasia is coupled with dilated superficial dysplastic veins which can be removed surgically forcing blood flow through the deep system which can dilate to almost normal size. Lateral marginal vein is a valveless abnormal vessel which may create venous stasis and also pulmonary embolism. It may exist as a collateral vessel in deep vein aplasia or hypoplasia but also with normal main venous system. Surgical removal is indicated except in case of deep vein aplasia.


  1. 1.
    Chuang VP, Mena CE, Hoskins PA. Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava. Review of embryogenesis and presentation of a simplified classification. Br J Radiol. 1974;47(556):206–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Timmers GJ, Falke TH, Rauwerda JA, Huijgens PC. Deep vein thrombosis as a presenting symptom of congenital interruption of the inferior vena cava. Int J Clin Pract. 1999;53(1):75–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kutsal A, Lampros TD, Cobanoglu A. Right iliac vein agenesis, varicosities, and widespread hemangiomas: report of a rare case. Tex Heart Inst J. 1999;26(2):149–51.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Onkar D, Onkar P, Mitra K. Isolated bilateral external iliac vein aplasia. Surg Radiol Anat. 2013;35(1):85–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D'Aloia A, Faggiano P, Fiorina C, Vizzardi E, Bontempi L, Grazioli L, Dei Cas L. Absence of inferior vena cava as a rare cause of deep venous thrombosis complicated by liver and lung embolism. Int J Cardiol. 2003;88(2–3):327–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Belov ST, Loose DA, Müller E. Angeborene Gefäßfehler (Congenital vascular malformations). Reinbeck: Einhorn Presse Verlag; 1985. p. 148–50.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Belov S, Loose DA. Surgical treatment of congenital vascular defects. Int Angiol. 1990;9(3):175–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    JH W. Invasive diagnostics of congenital vascular malformations. In: Mattassi R, Loose DA, Vaghi M, editors. Hemangiomas and vascular malformations. 1st ed. Milan: Springer; 2009. p. 139.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mattassi R. Vaghi M: management of marginal vein: current issues. Phlebology. 2007;22(6):283–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mattassi R, Pozzoli W. The marginal vein. Gefässchirurgie. 2014;4(19):311–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    BB L. Marginal vein is not a simple varicose vein: it is a silent killer! review. Damar Cer Derg. 2013;22(1):4–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rodríguez-Mañero M, Aguado L, Redondo P. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients with slow-flow vascular malformations. Arch Dermatol. 2010;146(12):1347–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kenneth J, KJ Jr C, Gloviczki P, Stanson W. Persistent sciatic vein: diagnosis and treatment of a rare condition. J Vasc Surg. 1996;23(3):490–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    King K, Landrigan-Ossar M, Clemens R, Chaudry G, Alomari AI. The use of endovenous laser treatment in toddlers. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2013 Jun;24(6):855–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mattassi R Vascular malformations of the limbs: treatment of venous and arteriovenous malformations. In: Mattassi R, Loose DA, Vaghi M. Hemangiomas and vascular malformations. An atlas of diagnosis and treatment. 2nd Springer, Milan 2015, p. 417–430Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim YW, Lee BB, Cho JH, Do YS, Kim DI, Kim ES. Haemodynamic and clinical assessment of lateral marginal vein excision in patients with a predominantly venous malformation of the lower extremity. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2007;33(1):122–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Belov ST. Congenital agenesia of the deep veins of the lower extremity: surgical treatment. J Cardiovasc Surg. 1972;13:594–8.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee BB, Laredo J, Kim YW, Neville R. Congenital vascular malformations: general treatment principles. Phlebology. 2007;22(6):258–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee BB, Baumgartner I, Berlien P, Bianchini G, Burrows P, Gloviczki P, Huang Y, Laredo J, Loose DA, Markovic J, Mattassi R, Parsi K, Rabe E, Rosenblatt M, Shortell C, Stillo F, Vaghi M, Villavicencio L, Zamboni P. Diagnosis and treatment of venous malformations consensus document of the International Union of Phlebology (IUP): updated 2013. Int Angiol. 2015;34(2):97–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Vascular Surgery and Center for Vascular Malformations “Stefan Belov”Clinical Institute Humanitas “Mater Domini” CastellanzaVareseItaly

Personalised recommendations