Complications of Endovascular Treatment of Peripheral Congenital Vascular Malformations
Interventional procedures in the management of congenital vascular malformations (CVM) have enjoyed rapid advances in the past two decades. This has followed advances in related fields such as diagnostic ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histopathology and molecular genetics. Endovascular procedures using a variety of embolic and sclerosing agents have replaced surgery as the preferred treatment option. The new interventional techniques have shown superior results to excisional surgery and have significantly reduced the need for aggressive surgical procedures. Interventional techniques are performed under fluoroscopic and/or duplex ultrasound (DUS) guidance, and advances in these imaging modalities have tremendously helped with a better management of vascular anomalies.
The authors thank Prof. BB Lee for providing the figures used in this chapter.
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