Endovascular Treatment of AVM: Trunk and Extremity
The common clinical manifestations of the trunk and extremity AVM are pulsating mass, pain, ulceration, bleeding, tissue necrosis, enlargement of draining vein, and venous hypertension and/or cardiac failure. Patients with hand or foot AVM have more ischemic pain, ulceration, and/or necrosis. But around 40% of patients with pelvis AVM with huge dilated vascular lesions have no symptoms due to deep location of the lesion and wide space of the pelvis. In the extremity, bone involvement of AVM is not rare about 18%.