Endovascular Treatment of Venous Malformation in the Head and Neck, Trunk, and Extremities
Endovascular treatment, or sclerotherapy, is the primary treatment for most symptomatic venous malformations [VM]. Different techniques and agents are used, but most patients benefit with decrease swelling and pain and improved appearance. Because of the progressive nature of VM, sclerotherapy is usually not curative. The aim of treatment should be to improve symptoms without risking major morbidity.
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