Contemporary Diagnosis: MRI and MRA

  • Jovan N. Markovic
  • Cynthia K. Shortell


Historically, the diagnosis and treatment of congenital vascular malformations (CVMs) have been hampered by the complex nature of these vascular lesions, the persistence of outdated and often inconsistent terminology, as well as the absence of defined imaging protocols and therapeutic algorithms [1–5]. As vascular malformations range in severity from trivial to life-threatening, from focal to diffuse and extensive, and vary significantly with regard to composition, the ability to use a single imaging modality to distinguish between high-flow and low-flow lesions is essential when the goal is to avoid noncontributory and/or invasive imaging modalities, select proper treatment modality, avoid unnecessary invasive catheter-based procedures, and avoid potentially life-threatening side effects [6–9].


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Duke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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