Contemporary Diagnosis: Imaging Modalities – Overview

  • Jovan N. Markovic
  • Cynthia K. Shortell


Congenital vascular malformations (CVMs) represent complex group of vascular lesions caused by embryologic dysmorphogenesis with normal rate of endothelial proliferation that can lead to anomalies of the vascular system characterized by wide range of presenting symptoms and often unpredictable clinical course [1–5]. Clinical evaluation often underestimates the involvement of deep structures such as muscles, bones, joints, or abdominal viscera and is not sufficient to differentiate high-flow from low-flow lesions and malformations from tumors in some of the more complex cases [6–9]. Limitations in diagnosis and treatment resulted from inadequate classification schema and diagnostic algorithms that traditionally characterized management of these vascular lesions [10, 11]. A relatively recent advancement in the diagnostic and treatment modalities have resulted in a better understanding of the pathophysiology and natural history of CVMs and improved management of these lesions.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Duke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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