Truncular Lymphatic Malformation (LM): Primary Lymphedema

  • Ningfei Liu


Primary lymphedema is defined as edema caused by lymphatic dysplasia and/or dysfunction due to congenital [1, 2] or unknown factors. Primary lymphedema occurs in 1 of every 10,000 people in the general population [3]. A recent study in the author’s clinic showed that primary lymphedema accounted ~27% of the 3252 lymphedema cases in the last 2 years in the author’s lymphology clinic in Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital (unpublished data).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lymphology Center of Department of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryShanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina

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