Lymphatic Malformation (LM) (Extratruncular): Lymphangioma

  • Jovan N. Markovic
  • Cynthia K. Shortell


Lymphatic malformations (LMs) as a subgroup of congenital vascular malformations (CVMs) are localized or diffused abnormalities of lymphogenesis which lead to true structural and/or functional anomalies of the lymphatic system [1, 2]. Most clinicians – from primary care doctors to subspecialists (including vascular surgeons) – consider the management of LMs a difficult task reserved for referral centers with specialized expertise in this area. The main reason why expertise for LMs management is centralized to major clinics is the low frequency at which CVMs occur in general, the confusing nomenclature, and the lack of a uniform classification system which traditionally characterized majority of the literature discussing LMs, as well as the absence of established guidelines for their management [3, 4]. Consequently, a significant number of LM patients have been discouraged by the lack of correct diagnosis and proper treatment despite numerous visits to different clinics.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Duke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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