Virtual Localization for Robust Geographic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Tony Grubman
  • Y. Ahmet ŞekercioğluEmail author
  • Nick Moore
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8629)


Geographic routing protocols are well suited to wireless sensor networks because of their modest resource requirements. A major limiting factor in their implementation is the requirement of location information. The virtual localization algorithm provides the functionality of geographic routing without any knowledge of node locations by constructing a virtual coordinate system. It differs from similar algorithms by improving efficiency – greedy routing performs significantly better over virtual locations than over physical locations. The algorithm was tested and evaluated in a real network environment.


Wireless sensor networks Geographic routing Localization 


  1. 1.
    Abramson, N.: The ALOHA system - another alternative for computer communications. In: Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer Conference. November 17–19, 1970, pp. 281–285. ACM, New York (1970)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akyildiz, I.F., Su, W., Sankarasubramaniam, Y., Cayirci, E.: Wireless sensor networks: a survey. Comput. Netw. 38, 393–422 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Caruso, A., Chessa, S., De, S., Urpi, A.: GPS free coordinate assignment and routing in wireless sensor networks. In: INFOCOM 2005. Proceedings of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, vol. 1, pp. 150–160. IEEE (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen, W., Mei, T., Meng, M.Q.H., Liang, H., Liu, Y., Li, Y., Li, S.: Localization algorithm based on a spring model (LASM) for large scale wireless sensor networks. Sensors 8(3), 1797–1818 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Huc, Florian, Jarry, Aubin, Leone, Pierre, Rolim, José: Virtual raw anchor coordinates: a new localization paradigm. In: Scheideler, Christian (ed.) ALGOSENSORS 2010. LNCS, vol. 6451, pp. 161–175. Springer, Heidelberg (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Langendoen, K., Reijers, N.: Distributed localization in wireless sensor networks: a quantitative comparison. Comput. Netw. 43(4), 499–518 (2003)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moore, N., Şekercioğlu, Y.A., Egan, G.: Virtual localization for mesh network routing. In: Proceedings of IASTED International Conference on Networks and Communication Systems (NCS2005), ACTA Press (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Niculescu, D., Nath, B.: Ad hoc positioning system (APS) using AOA. In: INFOCOM 2003. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, vol. 3, pp. 1734–1743 (2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rao, A., Ratnasamy, S., Papadimitriou, C., Shenker, S., Stoica, I.: Geographic routing without location information. In: Proceedings of the 9th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, MobiCom ’03, pp. 96–108. ACM, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sarkar, R., Yin, X., Gao, J., Luo, F., Gu, X.D.: Greedy routing with guaranteed delivery using Ricci flows. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, IPSN ’09, pp. 121–132. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Savarese, C., Rabaey, J.M., Langendoen, K.: Robust positioning algorithms for distributed ad-hoc wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the USENIX Technical Annual Conference, pp. 317–327. USENIX Association, Berkeley, CA, USA (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Savvides, A., Park, H., Srivastava, M.B.: The bits and flops of the \(N\)-hop multilateration primitive for node localization problems. In: Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications, WSNA ’02, pp. 112–121. ACM, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stojmenovic, I.: Position-based routing in ad hoc networks. IEEE Comm. Mag. 40(7), 128–134 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wireless Sensor and Robot Networks Laboratory (WSRNLab), Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tony Grubman
    • 1
  • Y. Ahmet Şekercioğlu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nick Moore
    • 1
  1. 1.Wireless Sensor and Robot Networks LaboratoryMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Université de Technologie de CompiègneCompiègneFrance

Personalised recommendations