In the present chapter we will discuss deep-inelastic scattering of charged leptons off nucleons and demonstrate that the nucleons are not fundamental particles but that they have a substructure of point-like quarks and gluons, as described by the quark-parton model. The deep-inelastic cross-section is proportional to a combination of two structure functions, F 1, 2, that are weighted sums of quark-momentum distributions of the various flavours and depend only weakly on the momentum transfer. Suitable combinations of data from hydrogen and deuterium targets allow conclusions about quark properties like spin, fractional quark charges and the contribution of quarks to the nucleon’s momentum.
KeywordsStructure Function Valence Quark Parton Model Proton Structure Function Quark Charge
- 3.W.B. Atwood, Lectures on Lepton Nucleon Scattering and Quantum Chromodynamics. Progress in Physics, vol. 4 (Birkhäuser, Boston/Basel/Stuttgart, 1982)Google Scholar