Advertisement

4 Pezizomycotina: Lecanoromycetes

  • Cécile GueidanEmail author
  • David J. Hill
  • Jolanta Miadlikowska
  • Francois Lutzoni
Part of the The Mycota book series (MYCOTA, volume 7B)

Abstract

Lecanoromycetes is the class of Ascomycota with the largest number of lichen-forming fungi. Members of this class are important components of most terrestrial ecosystems and occur in various habitats and on different substrates, from tropical to polar regions. Morphological, anatomical, and chemical characters have traditionally been used to classify orders, families, and genera within Lecanoromycetes. In the last two decades, molecular phylogenies have shown that traditional classification systems were not always consistent with the evolutionary history of this fungal class, resulting in changes in the delimitation of orders and families. Here, we revisit the taxonomic value of the main characters traditionally used for classification in light of current molecular phylogenies. The current delimitation of the 14 orders of Lecanoromycetes is also discussed, and recent changes in classification are highlighted.

Keywords

Molecular Phylogenetic Study Recent Molecular Study Ocular Chamber Fruticose Lichen Lichenized Fungus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thanks to Armando Mendez and Andrea Hart (Botany Library, Natural History Museum) for their help in locating and providing the required literature.

References

  1. Ahmadjian V (1967) A guide to the algae occurring as lichen symbionts: isolation, culture, cultural physiology, and identification. Phycologia 6:127–160Google Scholar
  2. Ahmadjian V (1969) Lichen synthesis. Österr Bot Z 116:306–311Google Scholar
  3. Ahmadjian V (1993) The lichen photobiont—what can it tell us about lichen systematics? Bryologist 96:310–313Google Scholar
  4. Amo de Paz G, Cubas P, Divakar PK, Lumbsch HT, Crespo A (2011) Origin and diversification of major clades in parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) during the Paleogene inferred by Bayesian analysis. PLoS One 6:e28161PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersen HL, Ekman S (2004) Phylogeny of the Micareaceae inferred from nrSSU DNA sequences. Lichenologist 36:27–35Google Scholar
  6. Andersen HL, Ekman S (2005) Disintegration of the Micareaceae (lichenized Ascomycota): a molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial rDNA sequences. Mycol Res 109:21–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Aptroot A (2001) Lichenized and saprobic fungal biodiversity of a single Elaeocarpus tree in Papua New Guinea, with the report of 200 species of ascomycetes associated with one tree. Fungal Divers 6:1–11Google Scholar
  8. Aptroot A, Sipman HJM (1997) Diversity of lichenized fungi in the tropics. In: Hyde KD (ed) Biodiversity of tropical microfungi. University Press, Hong Kong, pp 93–106Google Scholar
  9. Armaleo D, Zhang Y, Cheung S (2008) Light might regulate divergently depside and depsidone accumulation in the lichen Parmotrema hypotropum by affecting thallus temperature and water potential. Mycologia 100:565–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Armaleo D, Sun XM, Culberson C (2011) Insights from the first putative biosynthetic gene cluster for a lichen depside and depsidone. Mycologia 103:741–754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Arup U, Ekman S, Grube M, Mattsson JE, Wedin M (2007) The sister group relation of Parmeliaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota). Mycologia 99:42–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Asahina Y, Shibata S (1954) Chemistry of lichen substances. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Ueno, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  13. Bailey RH (1976) Ecological aspects of dispersal and establishment in lichens. In: Brown DH, Hawksworth DL, Bailey RH (eds) Lichenology: progress and problems. Academic, London, pp 215–247Google Scholar
  14. Baloch E, Lücking R, Lumbsch HT, Wedin M (2010) Major clades and phylogenetic relationships between lichenized and non-lichenized lineages in Ostropales (Ascomycota: Lecanoromycetes). Taxon 59:1483–1494Google Scholar
  15. Barr ME (1983) The ascomycete connection. Mycologia 75:1–13Google Scholar
  16. Bellemère A (1977) L'appareil apical de l'asque chez quelques Discomycètes: étude ultrastructurale comparative. Rev Mycol 40:3–19Google Scholar
  17. Bellemère A (1994) Asci and ascospores in ascomycete systematics. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) Ascomycete systematics. Problems and perspectives in the nineties, NATO advanced science institutes series. Plenum Press, New York, pp 111–126Google Scholar
  18. Bellemère A, Hafellner J (1982) L'ultrastructure des asques du genre Dactylospora (Discomycètes) et son intérêt taxonomique. Cryptogamie Mycol 3:71–93Google Scholar
  19. Bellemère A, Letrouit-Galinou MA (1987) Differentiation of lichen asci including dehiscence and sporogenesis: an ultrastructural survey. In: Peveling E (ed) Progress and problems in lichenology in the eighties, vol 25, Bibliotheca Lichenologica. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp 137–161Google Scholar
  20. Ben-Shaul Y, Paran N, Galun M (1969) The ultrastructure of the association between phycobiont and mycobiont in three ecotypes of the lichen Caloplaca aurantia var. aurantia. J Microsc 8:415–422Google Scholar
  21. Berbee ML (1996) Loculoascomycete origins and evolution of filamentous ascomycete morphology based on 18S rRNA gene sequence data. Mol Biol Evol 13:462–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Berbee ML, Taylor JW (1993) Dating the evolutionary radiations of the true fungi. Can J Bot 71:1114–1127Google Scholar
  23. Berbee ML, Taylor JW (2001) Fungal molecular evolution: gene trees and geologic time. In: McLaughlin DJ, McLaughlin EG, Lemke PA (eds) The Mycota, vol VII, part B. Systematics and evolution. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp 229–245Google Scholar
  24. Bessey CE (1907) A synopsis of plant phyla. Univ Nebr Stud 7(4):275–373Google Scholar
  25. Blanco O, Crespo A, Elix JA, Hawksworth DL, Lumbsch HT (2004) A molecular phylogeny and a new classification of parmelioid lichens containing Xanthoparmelia-type lichenan (Ascomycota: Lecanorales). Taxon 53:959–975Google Scholar
  26. Blanco O, Crespo A, Divakar PK, Elix JA, Lumbsch HT (2005) Molecular phylogeny of parmotremoid lichens (Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae). Mycologia 97:150–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Blanco O, Crespo A, Ree RH, Lumbsch HT (2006) Major clades of parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) and the evolution of their morphological and chemical diversity. Mol Phylogenet Evol 39:52–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brodo IM (1973) The lichen genus Coccotrema in North America. Bryologist 76:260–270Google Scholar
  29. Brodo IM, Sloan NA (2004) Lichen zonation on coastal rocks in Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve, Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia. Can Field Nat 118:405–424Google Scholar
  30. Brodo IM, Duran Sharnoff S, Sharnoff S (2001) Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven, LondonGoogle Scholar
  31. Buschbom J, Barker D (2006) Evolutionary history of vegetative reproduction in Porpidia s.l. (lichen-forming Ascomcota). Syst Biol 55:471–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Buschbom J, Mueller G (2004) Resolving evolutionary relationships in the lichen-forming genus Porpidia and related allies (Porpidiaceae, Ascomycota). Mol Phylogenet Evol 32:66–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Buschbom J, Mueller GM (2006) Testing “species pair” hypotheses: evolutionary processes in the lichen-forming species complex Porpidia flavocoerulescens and Porpidia melinodes. Mol Biol Evol 23:574–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Bylin A, Arnerup J, Högberg N, Thor G (2007) A phylogenetic study of Fuscideaceae using mtSSU rDNA. In: Frisch A, Lange U, Staiger B (eds) Lichenologische Nebenstunden. Contributions to lichen taxonomy and ecology in honour of Klaus Kalb, vol 96, Bibliotheca Lichenologica. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp 49–60Google Scholar
  35. Chadefaud M (1942) Étude d'asques: II. Structure et anatomie comparée de l'appareil apical chez divers Disco- et Pyrénomycètes. Rev Mycol 7:57–88Google Scholar
  36. Chadefaud M (1960) Les végétaux non vasculaires (Cryptogamie). In: Chadefaud M, Emberger L (eds) Traité de botanique systématique. Masson, Paris, pp 524–529, 543–545 and 639–640Google Scholar
  37. Chadefaud M (1973) Les asques et la systematique des Ascomycetes. Bull Soc Mycol France 89:127–170Google Scholar
  38. Chadefaud M, Letrouit-Galinou MA, Favre MC (1963) Sur l'évolution des asques du type archaeascé chez les Discomycètes de l'ordre des Lécanorales. Compt Rend Acad Sci Paris 257:4003–4005Google Scholar
  39. Chadefaud M, Letrouit-Galinou MA, Favre MC (1967) Sur l'origine phylogénétique et l'évolution des ascomycètes des lichens. Bull Soc Bot Fr Mém 115:79–111Google Scholar
  40. Choisy M (1954) Catalogue des lichens de la region lyonnaise. Édition Paul Chevalier, ParisGoogle Scholar
  41. Clauzade G, Roux C (1984) Les genres Aspicilia Massal. et Bellemerea Hafellner et Roux. Bull Soc Bot Centre-Ouest 15:127–141Google Scholar
  42. Clauzade G, Roux C (1985) Likenoj de okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita determinlibro. Bull Soc Bot Centre-Ouest 7:1–893Google Scholar
  43. Collins CR, Farrar JF (1978) Structural resistances to mass transfer in the lichen Xanthoria parietina. New Phytol 81:71–83Google Scholar
  44. Coppins BJ, Wolseley P (2002) Lichens of tropical forests. In: Watling R, Frankland JC, Ainsworth AM, Isaac S, Robinson CH (eds) Tropical mycology, vol 2, Micromycetes. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp 113–131Google Scholar
  45. Crespo A, Lumbsch HT, Mattsson JE, Blanco O, Divakar PK, Articus K, Wiklund E, Bawingan PA, Wedin M (2007) Testing morphology-based hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships in Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota) using three ribosomal markers and the nuclear RPB1 gene. Mol Phylogenet Evol 44:812–824PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Crespo A, Kauff F, Divakar PK, del Prado R, Pérez-Ortega S, de Paz GA, Ferencova Z, Blanco O, Roca-Valiente B, Núñez-Zapata J, Cubas P, Argüello A, Elix JA, Esslinger TL, Hawksworth DL, Millanes AM, Molina MC, Wedin M, Ahti T, Aptroot A, Barreno E, Bungartz F, Calvelo S, Candan M, Cole MJ, Ertz D, Goffinet B, Lindblom L, Lücking R, Lutzoni F, Mattsson JE, Messuti MI, Miadlikowska J, Piercey-Normore MD, Rico VJ, Sipman H, Schmitt I, Spribille T, Thell A, Thor G, Upreti DK, Lumbsch HT (2010) Phylogenetic generic classification of parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) based on molecular, morphological and chemical evidence. Taxon 59:1735–1753Google Scholar
  47. Culberson WL, Culberson CF (1981) The genera Cetrariastrum and Concamerella (Parmeliaceae): a chemosynthetic synopsis. Bryologist 84:273–314Google Scholar
  48. Culberson CF, Elix JA (1989) Lichen substances. In: Harborne JB (ed) Methods in plant biochemistry, vol 1, Plant phenolics. Academic, London, San Diego, pp 509–535Google Scholar
  49. Dal Grande F, Widmer I, Wagner HH, Scheidegger C (2012) Vertical and horizontal photobiont transmission within populations of a lichen symbiosis. Mol Ecol 21:3159–3172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. David JC, Hawksworth DL (1991) Validation of six family names of lichenized ascomycetes. Systema Ascomycetum 10:13–18Google Scholar
  51. Davydov DA (2007) Approaches to a classification of the family Umbilicariaceae (lichenised Ascomycota) by anatomical and morphological characters. Turczaninowia 10:51–57Google Scholar
  52. Du Rietz GE (1924) Die Soredien und Isidien der Flechten. Svensk Bot Tidskr 18:371–396Google Scholar
  53. Duvigneaud P (1955) Les Stereocaulon des hautes montagnes du Kivu. Essai anatomo-systématique. Lejeunia Mem 14:1–144Google Scholar
  54. Ekman S (2001) Molecular phylogeny of the Bacidiaceae (Lecanorales, lichenized Ascomycota). Mycol Res 105:783–797Google Scholar
  55. Ekman S, Tønsberg T (2002) Most species of Lepraria and Leproloma form a monophyletic group closely related to Stereocaulon. Mycol Res 106:1262–1276Google Scholar
  56. Ekman S, Wedin M (2000) The phylogeny of the families Lecanoraceae and Bacidiaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) inferred from nuclear SSU rDNA sequences. Plant Biol 2:350–360Google Scholar
  57. Ekman S, Andersen HL, Wedin M (2008) The limitations of ancestral state reconstruction and the evolution of the ascus in the Lecanorales (lichenized Ascomycota). Syst Biol 57:141–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Elix JA (1993) Progress in the generic delimitation of Parmelia sensu lato lichens (Ascomycotina: Parmeliaceae) and a synoptic key to the Parmeliaceae. Bryologist 96:359–383Google Scholar
  59. Elix JA, Hale ME (1987) Canomaculina, Myelochroa, Parmelinella, Parmelinopsis and Parmotremopsis, five new genera in the Parmeliaceae (lichenized Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 29:233–244Google Scholar
  60. Elix JA, Stocker-Wörgötter E (2008) Biochemistry and secondary metabolites. In: Nash TH III (ed) Lichen biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 104–133Google Scholar
  61. Elix JA, Johnston J, Verdon D (1986) Canoparmelia, Paraparmelia and Relicinopsis, three new genera in the Parmeliaceae (lichenized Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 27:271–282Google Scholar
  62. Eriksson OE (1982) The families of bitunicate Ascomycetes. Opera Bot 60:1–209Google Scholar
  63. Eriksson OE (2006) Outline of Ascomycota—2006. Myconet 12:1–82Google Scholar
  64. Eriksson OE, Hawksworth DL (1986) Outline of the ascomycetes—1986. Systema Ascomycetum 5:185–324Google Scholar
  65. Eriksson OE, Hawksworth DL (1993) Outline of the ascomycetes—1993. Systema Ascomycetum 12:51–257Google Scholar
  66. Eriksson OE, Winka K (1997) Supraordinal taxa of Ascomycota. Myconet 1:1–16Google Scholar
  67. Eriksson OE, Baral HO, Currah RS, Hansen K, Kurtzman CP, Rambold G, Laessøe T (2003) Outline of Ascomycota—2003. Myconet 9:1–103Google Scholar
  68. Fedrowitz K, Kaasalainen U, Rikkinen J (2011) Genotype variability of Nostoc symbionts associated with three epiphytic Nephroma species in a boreal forest landscape. Bryologist 114:220–230Google Scholar
  69. Fernandez-Mendoza F, Domasche S, Garcia MA, Jordan P, Martin MP, Printzen C (2011) Population structure of mycobionts and photobionts of the widespread lichen Cetraria aculeata. Mol Ecol 20:1208–1232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Fletcher A (1980) Marine and maritime lichens of rocky shores: their ecology, physiology and biological interactions. In: Price JH, Irvine DEG, Farnham WF (eds) The shore environment, vol 2, Ecosystems. Systematics Association special volume no. 17B. Academic, London, New York, pp 789–842Google Scholar
  71. Friedl T (1987) Thallus development and phycobionts of the parasitic lichen Diploschistes muscorum. Lichenologist 19:183–191Google Scholar
  72. Friedl T, Büdel B (2008) Photobionts. In: Nash TH III (ed) Lichen biology, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 7–26Google Scholar
  73. Frisch A, Kalb K, Grube M (2006) Molecular phylogeny of the Thelotremataceae. A study based on Bayesian analysis of mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene data. In: Wirth V (ed) Contributions towards a new systematics of the lichen family Thelotremataceae, vol 92, Bibliotheca Lichenologica. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp 517–539Google Scholar
  74. Galun M (1988) The fungus-alga relation. In: Galun M (ed) CRC handbook of lichenology, vol I. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 147–158Google Scholar
  75. Galun M, Paran N, Ben-Shaul Y (1970) An ultrastructural study of the fungus alga association in Lecanora radiosa growing under different environmental conditions. J Microsc 8:801–806Google Scholar
  76. Gaya E, Högnabba F, Holguin Á, Molnar K, Fernández-Brime S, Stenroos S, Arup U, Søchting U, van den Boom P, Lücking R, Sipman HJM, Lutzoni F (2012) Implementing a cumulative supermatrix approach for a comprehensive phylogenetic study of the Teloschistales (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota). Mol Phylogenet Evol 63:374–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Gazis R, Miadlikowska J, Lutzoni F, Arnold AE, Chaverri P (2012) Culture-based study of endophytes associated with rubber trees in Peru reveals a new class of Pezizomycotina: Xylonomycetes. Mol Phylogenet Evol 65:294–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Geitler L (1934) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flechtensymbiose IV, V. Arch Protistenk 82:51–85Google Scholar
  79. Geitler L (1963) Über Haustorien bei Flechten und über Myrmecia biatorellae in Psora globifera. Österr Bot Z 110:270–280Google Scholar
  80. Gierl C, Kalb K (1993) Die Flechtengattung Dibaeis. Eine Übersicht über die rosafrüchtigen Arten von Baeomyces sens. lat. nebst Anmerkungen zu Phyllobaeis gen. nov. Herzogia 9:593–645Google Scholar
  81. Gilbert OL (1990) The lichen flora of urban wasteland. Lichenologist 22:87–101Google Scholar
  82. Gilbert OL (1996) The lichen vegetation of chalk and limestone streams in Britain. Lichenologist 28:145–159Google Scholar
  83. Gilbert OL, Giavarini VJ (1997) The lichen vegetation of acid watercourses in England. Lichenologist 29:347–367Google Scholar
  84. Gilenstam G (1969) Studies in the lichen genus Conotrema. Arch Bot 7:149–179Google Scholar
  85. Golubkova NS (1988) The lichen family Acarosporaceae in the U.S.S.R. Komarov Botanical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R., LeningradGoogle Scholar
  86. Green TGA, Schroeter B, Sancho LG (1999) Plant life in Antarctica. In: Pugnaire FI, Valladares F (eds) Handbook of functional plant ecology. Marcel Dekker, New York, Basel, pp 495–543Google Scholar
  87. Grube M, Arup U (2001) Molecular and morphological evolution in the Physciaceae (Lecanorales, lichenized Ascomycotina), with special emphasis on the genus Rinodina. Lichenologist 33:63–72Google Scholar
  88. Grube M, Hawksworth DL (2007) Trouble with lichen: the re-evaluation and re-interpretation of thallus form and fruit body types in the molecular era. Mycol Res 111:1116–1132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Grube M, Baloch E, Lumbsch HT (2004) The phylogeny of Porinaceae (Ostropomycetidae) suggests a neotenic origin of perithecia in Lecanoromycetes. Mycol Res 108:1111–1118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Gueidan C, Ruibal C, de Hoog GS, Gorbushina AA, Untereiner WA, Lutzoni F (2008) A rock-inhabiting ancestor for mutualistic and pathogen-rich fungal lineages. Stud Mycol 61:111–119PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Gueidan C, Ruibal C, de Hoog GS, Schneider H (2011) Rock-inhabiting fungi originated during periods of dry climate in the late Devonian and middle Triassic. Fungal Biol 115:987–996PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hafellner J (1984) Studien in Richtung einer naturlicheren Gliederung der Sammelfamilien Lecanoraceae und Lecideaceae. In: Hertel H, Oberwinkler F (eds) Beitrage zur Lichenologie. Festscrift J. Poelt, vol 79, Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia. J. Cramer, Vaduz, pp 241–371Google Scholar
  93. Hafellner J (1988) Principles of classification and main taxonomic groups. In: Galun M (ed) CRC handbook of lichenology, vol III. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  94. Hafellner J (1994) Problems in Lecanorales systematics. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) Ascomycete systematics. Problems and perspectives in the nineties, NATO advanced science institutes series. Plenum, New York, pp 315–320Google Scholar
  95. Hafellner J (1995) Towards a better circumscription of the Acarosporaceae (lichenized Ascomycotina, Lecanorales). Cryptog Bot 5:99–104Google Scholar
  96. Hale ME (1974) Bulbothrix, Parmelina, Relicina, and Xanthoparmelia, four new genera in the Parmeliaceae. Phytologia 28:479–490Google Scholar
  97. Hale ME (1984a) An historical review of the genus concept in lichenology. In: Hertel H, Oberwinkler F (eds) Beitrage zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt, vol 79, Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia. Vaduz, J. Cramer, pp 11–23Google Scholar
  98. Hale ME (1984b) Flavopunctelia, a new genus in the Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 20:681–682Google Scholar
  99. Hawksworth DL, Eriksson OE (1986) The names of accepted orders of ascomycetes. Systema Ascomycetum 5:175–184Google Scholar
  100. Harris RC (1990) Some Florida lichens. Author, Bronx, NYGoogle Scholar
  101. Heckman DS, Geiser DM, Eidell BR, Stauffer RL, Kardos NL, Hedges SB (2001) Molecular evidence for the early colonization of land by fungi and plants. Science 293:1129–1133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Helms G, Friedl T, Rambold G (2003) Phylogenetic relationships of the Physciaceae inferred from rDNA sequence data and selected phenotypic characters. Mycologia 95:1078–1099PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Henskens FL, Green TGA, Wilkins A (2012) Cyanolichens can have both cyanobacteria and green algae in a common layer as major contributors to photosynthesis. Ann Bot 110:555–563PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Henssen A (1976) Studies in the developmental morphology of lichenized Ascomycetes. In: Brown DH, Hawksworth DL, Bailey RH (eds) Lichenology: progress and problems. Academic, London, pp 107–138Google Scholar
  105. Henssen A (1981) Hyphomorpha als phycobiont in Flechten. Plant Syst Evol 137:139–143Google Scholar
  106. Henssen A (1985) Hertella, a new lichen genus in the Peltigerales from the Southern Hemisphere. Mycotaxon 22:381–397Google Scholar
  107. Henssen A, Jahns HM (1974) Lichenes. Georg Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  108. Henssen A, Keuck G, Renner B, Vobis G (1981) The lecanoralean centrum. In: Reynolds DR (ed) Ascomycete systematics. The Luttrellian concept. Springer, New York, Heidelberg, Berlin, pp 138–234Google Scholar
  109. Hertel H (1970) Trapeliaceae—eine neue Flechtenfamilie. Vortr Gesamtgeb Bot 4:171–185Google Scholar
  110. Hertel H, Rambold G (1985) Lecidea sect. Armeniacae: lecideoide Arten der Flechtengattungen Lecanora und Tephromela (Lecanorales). Bot Jarb Syst 107:469–501Google Scholar
  111. Hestmark G (1997) Growth from the centre in an umbilicate lichen. Lichenologist 29:379–383Google Scholar
  112. Hestmark G, Miadlikowska J, Kauff F, Fraker E, Molnar K, Lutzoni F (2011) Single origin and subsequent diversification of central Andean endemic Umbilicaria species. Mycologia 103:45–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF, Blackwell M, Cannon PF, Eriksson OE, Huhndorf S, James T, Kirk PM, Lücking R, Lumbsch HT, Lutzoni F, Matheny PB, McLaughlin DJ, Powell MJ, Redhead S, Schoch CL, Spatafora JW, Stalpers JA, Vilgalys R, Aime MC, Aptroot A, Bauer R, Begerow D, Benny GL, Castlebury LA, Crous PW, Dai YC, Gams W, Geiser DM, Griffith GW, Gueidan C, Hawksworth DL, Hestmark G, Hosaka K, Humber RA, Hyde KD, Ironside JE, Kõljalg U, Kurtzman CP, Larsson KH, Lichtwardt R, Longcore J, Miadlikowska J, Miller A, Moncalvo JM, Mozley-Standridge S, Oberwinkler F, Parmasto E, Reeb V, Rogers JD, Roux C, Ryvarden L, Sampaio JP, Schüßler A, Sugiyama J, Thorn RG, Tibell L, Untereiner WA, Walker C, Wang Z, Weir A, Weiss M, White MM, Winka K, Yao YJ, Zhang N (2007) A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the fungi. Mycol Res 111:509–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Hodkinson BP, Lendemer JC (2011) The orders of Ostropomycetidae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota): recognition of Sarrameanales and Trapeliales with a request to retain Pertusariales over Agyriales. Phytologia 93:407–412Google Scholar
  115. Hofstetter V, Miadlikowska J, Kauff F, Lutzoni F (2007) Phylogenetic comparison of protein-coding versus ribosomal RNA-coding sequence data: a case study of the Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota). Mol Phylogenet Evol 44:412–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Honegger R (1978) The ascus apex in lichenized fungi. I: The Lecanora-, Peltigera and Teloschistes-types. Lichenologist 10:47–67Google Scholar
  117. Honegger R (1980) The ascus apex in lichenized fungi. II: The Rhizocarpon-type. Lichenologist 12:157–172Google Scholar
  118. Honegger R (1982a) Ascus structure and function, ascospore delimitation, and phycobiont cell wall types associated with the Lecanorales (lichenized ascomycetes). J Hattori Bot Lab 52:417–429Google Scholar
  119. Honegger R (1982b) The ascus apex in lichenized fungi. III: The Pertusaria-type. Lichenologist 14:205–217Google Scholar
  120. Honegger R (1983) The ascus apex in lichenized fungi. IV: Baeomyces and Icmadophila in comparison with Cladonia (Lecanorales) and the non-lichenized Leotia (Helotiales). Lichenologist 15:57–71Google Scholar
  121. Honegger R (1984a) Scanning electron microscopy of the contact site of conidia and trichogynes in Cladonia furcata. Lichenologist 16:11–19Google Scholar
  122. Honegger R (1984b) Ultrastructural studies on conidiomata, conidiophores, and conidiogenous cells in six lichen-forming ascomycetes. Can J Bot 62:2081–2093Google Scholar
  123. Honegger R (2008) Morphogenesis. In: Nash TH III (ed) Lichen biology, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 69–93Google Scholar
  124. Honegger R, Edwards D, Axe L (2013) The earliest records of internally stratified cyanobacterial and algal lichens from the Lower Devonian of the Welsh Borderland. New Phytol 197:164–275Google Scholar
  125. Huneck S (2001) New results on the chemistry of lichen substances. In: Fortschritte der Chemie organischer Naturstoffe, vol 81. Springer, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  126. Huneck S, Yoshimura I (1996) Identification of lichen substances. Springer, Berlin, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  127. Ihlen PG, Ekman S (2002) Outline of phylogeny and character evolution in Rhizocarpon (Rhizocarpaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) based on nuclear ITS and mitochondrial SSU ribosomal DNA sequences. Biol J Linn Soc 77:535–546Google Scholar
  128. Jaag O (1933) Coccomyxa Schmidle, Monographie einer Algengattung. Beitr Kryptogamenfl Schweiz 8:1–132Google Scholar
  129. Jahns HM (1970) Untersuchungen zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Cladoniaceen. Nova Hedwigia 20:1–177Google Scholar
  130. James TY, Kauff F, Schoch C, Matheny PB, Hofstetter V, Cox CJ, Celio G, Gueidan C, Fraker E, Miadlikowska J, Lumbsch T, Rauhut A, Reeb V, Arnold AE, Amtoft A, Stajich JE, Hosaka K, Sung GH, Johnson D, O’Rourke B, Binder M, Curtis JM, Slot JC, Wang Z, Wilson AW, Schüßler A, Longcore JE, O’Donnell K, Mozley-Standridge K, Porter D, Letcher PM, Powell MJ, Taylor JW, White MM, Griffith GW, Davies DR, Sugiyama J, Rossman AY, Rogers JD, Pfister DH, Hewitt D, Hansen K, Hambleton S, Shoemaker RA, Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Spotts RA, Serdani M, Crous PW, Hughes KW, Matsuura K, Langer E, Langer G, Untereiner WA, Lücking R, Büdel B, Geiser DM, Aptroot A, Buck WR, Cole MS, Diederich P, Printzen C, Schmitt I, Schultz M, Yahr R, Zavarzin A, Hibbett DS, Lutzoni F, McLaughlin DJ, Spatafora JW, Vilgalys R (2006) Reconstructing the early evolution of the fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443:818–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Janex-Favre MC (1977) Le developpement et la structure des pycnides de l'Umbilicaria cinereorufescens. Rev Bryol Lichenol 43:1–18Google Scholar
  132. Janex-Favre MC (1982) Le developpement et la structure des pycnides du lichen Parmelia acetabulum. Cryptogamie Bryol L 3:337–349Google Scholar
  133. Johnston J (2001) Baeomycetaceae. In: McCarthy PM (ed) Flora of Australia, vol 58A, Lichens 3. ABRS/CSIRO Australia, Melbourne, pp 14–16Google Scholar
  134. Kantvilas G (1996) A new byssoid lichen genus from Tasmania. Lichenologist 28:229–237Google Scholar
  135. Kantvilas G (2004) Sarrameanaceae. In: McCarthy PM, Mallett K (eds) Flora of Australia, vol 56A, Lichens 4. ABRS/CSIRO Australia, Melbourne, pp 74–77Google Scholar
  136. Kantvilas G, Vězda A (1996) The lichen genus Sarrameana. Nord J Bot 16:325–333Google Scholar
  137. Kärnefelt I (1989) Morphology and phylogeny in the Teloschistales. Cryptog Bot 1:147–203Google Scholar
  138. Kärnefelt I, Thell A (1992) The evaluation of characters in lichenized families, exemplified with the alectorioid and some parmelioid genera. Plant Syst Evol 180:181–204Google Scholar
  139. Kauff F, Büdel B (2005) Ascoma ontogeny and apothecial anatomy in the Gyalectaceae (Ostropales, Ascomycota) support the re-establishment of the Coenogoniaceae. Bryologist 108:272–281Google Scholar
  140. Kauff F, Lutzoni F (2002) Phylogeny of the Gyalectales and Ostropales (Ascomycota, Fungi): among and within order relationships. Mol Phylogenet Evol 25:138–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Kirk PM, Cannon PF, David JC, Stalpers JA (2001) Ainsworth & Bisby's dictionary of the fungi, 9th edn. CAB International, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  142. Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008) Ainsworth & Bisby's dictionary of the fungi, 10th edn. CAB International, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  143. Krog H (1982) Evolutionary trends in foliose and fruticose lichens of the Parmeliaceae. J Hattori Bot Lab 52:303–311Google Scholar
  144. Kroken S, Taylor JW (2001) A gene genealogical approach to recognize phylogenetic species boundaries in the lichenized fungus Letharia. Mycologia 93:38–53Google Scholar
  145. Lamb IM (1977) A conspectus of the lichen genus Stereocaulon (Schreb.) Hoffm. J Hattori Bot Lab 43:191–355Google Scholar
  146. Lawrey JD (1986) Biological role of lichen substances. Bryologist 89:111–122Google Scholar
  147. Lawrey JD (1989) Lichen secondary compounds: evidence for a correspondence between antiherbivore and antimicrobial function. Bryologist 92:326–328Google Scholar
  148. Lawrey JD, Diederich P (2003) Lichenicolous fungi: interactions, evolution, and biodiversity. Bryologist 106:81–120Google Scholar
  149. Leavitt SD, Johnson LA, Goward T, St Clair LL (2011a) Species delimitation in taxonomically difficult lichen-forming fungi: an example from morphologically and chemically diverse Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) in North America. Mol Phylogenet Evol 60:317–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Leavitt SD, Johnson LA, St Clair LL (2011b) Species delimitation and evolution in morphologically and chemically diverse communities of the lichen-forming genus Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in western North America. Am J Bot 98:175–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Letrouit-Galinou MA (1972) Études sur le Lobaria laetevirens. II: Le développement des pycnides. Bull Soc Bot Fr 119:477–485Google Scholar
  152. Letrouit-Galinou MA (1973a) Les asques des lichens et le type archaeascé. Bryologist 76:30–47Google Scholar
  153. Letrouit-Galinou MA (1973b) Les pycnospores et les pycnides du Gyalecta carneolutea (Turn.) Oliv. Bull Soc Bot Fr 120:373–384Google Scholar
  154. Letrouit-Galinou MA, Bellemère A (1989) Ascomatal development in lichens: a review. Cryptogamie Bryol L 10:189–233Google Scholar
  155. Letrouit-Galinou MA, Lallement R (1977) Le développement des pycnides du discolichen Buellia canescens (Dicks.) D.N. Ann Sci Nat Bot Biol 18:119–134Google Scholar
  156. Lindemuth R, Wirtz N, Lumbsch HT (2001) Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA sequences supports the view that loculoascomycetes (Ascomycota) are not monophyletic. Mycol Res 105:1176–1181Google Scholar
  157. Liu YJ, Hall BD (2004) Body plan evolution of ascomycetes, as inferred from an RNA polymerase II phylogeny. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:4507–4512PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Louwhoff SHJJ (2009) Umbilicariaceae. In: McCarthy PM (ed) Flora of Australia, vol 57, Lichens 5. ABRS and CSIRO Publishing, Canberra, Melbourne, pp 553–562Google Scholar
  159. Lücking R (2008) Foliicolous lichenized fungi, Flora Neotropica Monograph 103. Organization for Flora Neotropica and The New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, NYGoogle Scholar
  160. Lücking R, Stuart BL, Lumbsch HT (2004) Phylogenetic relationships of Gomphillaceae and Asterothyriaceae: evidence from a combined Bayesian analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial sequences. Mycologia 96:283–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Lücking R, Huhndorf S, Pfister DH, Rivas Plata E, Lumbsch HT (2009a) Fungi evolved right on track. Mycologia 101:810–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Lücking R, Lawrey JD, Sikaroodi M, Gillevet PM, Chaves JL, Sipman HJM, Bungartz F (2009b) Do lichens domesticate photobionts like farmers domesticate crops? Evidence from a previously unrecognized lineage of filamentous cyanobacteria. Am J Bot 96:1409–1418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Lumbsch HT (1997) Systematic studies in the suborder Agyriineae (Lecanorales). J Hattori Bot Lab 83:1–73Google Scholar
  164. Lumbsch HT (1998a) Taxonomic use of metabolic data in lichen-forming fungi. In: Frisvad JC, Bridge PD, Arora DK (eds) Chemical fungal taxonomy. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 345–387Google Scholar
  165. Lumbsch HT (1998b) The use of metabolic data in lichenology at the species and subspecific levels. Lichenologist 30:357–367Google Scholar
  166. Lumbsch HT, Huhndorf SM (2007a) Whatever happened to the pyrenomycetes and loculoascomycetes? Mycol Res 111:1064–1074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Lumbsch HT, Huhndorf SM (2007b) Outline of Ascomycota 2007. Myconet 13:1–58Google Scholar
  168. Lumbsch HT, Huhndorf SM (2010) Myconet, vol 14. Part one. Outline of Ascomycota—2009. Part two. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos. 4751–5113. Fieldiana Life Earth Sci 1:1–64Google Scholar
  169. Lumbsch HT, Feige GB, Schmitz KE (1994) Systematic studies in the Pertusariales. I: Megasporaceae, a new family of lichenized Ascomycetes. J Hattori Bot Lab 75:295–304Google Scholar
  170. Lumbsch HT, Lunke T, Feige GB, Huneck S (1995) Anamylopsoraceae—a new family of lichenized ascomycetes with stipitate apothecia (Lecanorales: Agyriineae). Plant Syst Evol 198:275–286Google Scholar
  171. Lumbsch HT, Schmitt I, Döring H, Wedin M (2001a) Molecular systematics supports the recognition of an additional order of Ascomycota: the Agyriales (Ascomycota). Mycol Res 105:16–23Google Scholar
  172. Lumbsch HT, Schmitt I, Döring H, Wedin M (2001b) ITS sequence data suggest variability of ascus types and support ontogenetic characters as phylogenetic discriminators in the Agyriales (Ascomycota). Mycol Res 105:265–274Google Scholar
  173. Lumbsch HT, Wirtz N, Lindemuth R, Schmitt I (2002) Higher level phylogenetic relationships of euascomycetes (Pezizomycotina) inferred from a combined analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data. Mycol Prog 1:57–70Google Scholar
  174. Lumbsch HT, Schmitt I, Palice Z, Wiklund E, Ekman S, Wedin M (2004) Supraordinal phylogenetic relationships of Lecanoromycetes based on a Bayesian analysis of combined nuclear and mitochondrial sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol 31:822–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Lumbsch HT, Del Prado R, Kantvilas G (2005) Gregorella, a new genus to accommodate Moelleropsis humida and a molecular phylogeny of Arctomiaceae. Lichenologist 37:291–302Google Scholar
  176. Lumbsch HT, Archer AW, Elix JA (2007a) A new species of Loxospora (lichenized Ascomycota: Sarrameanaceae) from Australia. Lichenologist 39:509–517Google Scholar
  177. Lumbsch HT, Schmitt I, Lücking R, Wiklund E, Wedin M (2007b) The phylogenetic placement of Ostropales within Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota) revisited. Mycol Res 111:257–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Lumbsch HT, Schmitt I, Mangold A, Wedin M (2007c) Ascus types are phylogenetically misleading in Trapeliaceae and Agyriaceae (Ostropomycetidae, Ascomycota). Mycol Res 111:1133–1141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Lumbsch HT, Hipp AL, Divakar PK, Blanco O, Crespo A (2008a) Accelerated evolutionary rates in tropical and oceanic parmelioid lichens (Ascomycota). BMC Evol Biol 8:257PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Lumbsch HT, Nelsen MP, Lücking R (2008b) The phylogenetic position of Haematommataceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota), with notes on secondary chemistry and species delimitation. Nova Hedwigia 86:104–114Google Scholar
  181. Luttrell ES (1951) Taxonomy of pyrenomycetes. University of Missouri Studies 24, Curators of the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, pp 1–120Google Scholar
  182. Luttrell ES (1955) The ascostromatic Ascomycetes. Mycologia 47:511–532Google Scholar
  183. Lutzoni F, Pagel M (1997) Accelerated evolution as a consequence of transitions to mutualism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:11422–11427PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Lutzoni F, Pagel M, Reeb V (2001) Major fungal lineages are derived from lichen symbiotic ancestors. Nature 411:937–940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Lutzoni F, Kauff F, Cox C, McLaughlin D, Celio G, Dentinger B, Padamsee M, Hibbett D, James TY, Baloch E, Grube M, Reeb V, Hofstetter V, Schoch C, Arnold AE, Miadlikowska J, Spatafora J, Johnson D, Hambleton S, Crockett M, Shoemaker R, Sung GH, Lücking R, Lumbsch T, O'Donnell K, Binder M, Diederich P, Ertz D, Gueidan C, Hansen K, Harris RC, Hosaka K, Lim YW, Matheny B, Nishida H, Pfister D, Rogers J, Rossman A, Schmitt I, Sipman H, Stone J, Sugiyama J, Yahr R, Vilgalys R (2004) Assembling the fungal tree of life: progress, classification, and evolution of subcellular traits. Am J Bot 91:1446–1480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Mägdefrau K (1957) Flechten und Moose in baltischen Bernstein. Ber Deut Bot Ges 70:433–435Google Scholar
  187. Magnusson AH (1936) Acarosporaceae und Thelocarpaceae. In: Zahlbruckner A (ed) Dr. L. Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, band 9. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M.B.H., Leipzig, pp 1–318Google Scholar
  188. Mangold A, Martín MP, Lücking R, Lumbsch HT (2008) Molecular phylogeny suggests synonymy of Thelotremataceae within Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Ostropales). Taxon 57:476–486Google Scholar
  189. Matsumoto T, Deguchi H (1999) Pycnidial structures and genus concept in the Thelotremataceae. Bryologist 102:86–91Google Scholar
  190. Mattsson JE, Lumbsch HT (1989) The use of the species pair concept in lichen taxonomy. Taxon 38:238–241Google Scholar
  191. Mattsson JE, Wedin M (1999) A re-assessment of the family Alectoriaceae. Lichenologist 31:431–440Google Scholar
  192. McCarthy PM (2003) Catalogue of Australian Lichens. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series, 19, Australian Biological Resources Study, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  193. Miadlikowska J, Lutzoni F (2004) Phylogenetic classification of Peltigeralean fungi (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) based on ribosomal RNA small and large subunits. Am J Bot 91:449–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Miadlikowska J, Kauff F, Hofstetter V, Fraker E, Grube M, Hafellner J, Reeb V, Hodkinson BP, Kukwa M, Lücking R, Hestmark G, Otalora MG, Rauhut A, Büdel B, Scheidegger C, Timdal E, Stenroos S, Brodo IM, Perlmutter GB, Ertz D, Diederich P, Lendemer JC, May PF, Schoch C, Arnold AE, Gueidan C, Tripp E, Yahr R, Robertson C, Lutzoni F (2006) New insights into classification and evolution of the Lecanoromycetes (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota) from phylogenetic analyses of three ribosomal RNA- and two protein-coding genes. Mycologia 98:1088–1103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Millot M, Di Meo F, Tomasi S, Boustie J, Trouillas P (2012) Photoprotective capacities of lichen metabolites: a joint theoretical and experimental study. J Photochem Photobiol B 111:17–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Möller A (1888) Über die sogenannten Spermatien der Ascomyceten. Bot Zeitung 46:421–425Google Scholar
  197. Muggia L, Nelson P, Wheeler T, Yakovchenko S, Tønsberg T, Spribille T (2011) Convergent evolution of a symbiotic duet: the case of the lichen genus Polychidium (Peltigerales, Ascomycota). Am J Bot 98:1647–1656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Müller J (1880) Lichenologische Beiträge, X. Flora 63:17–24, 40–45Google Scholar
  199. Müller J (1882) Lichenologische Beiträge, XV. Flora 65:291–306, 313–322, 326–337, 381–386, 397–402Google Scholar
  200. Myllys L, Lohtander K, Tehler A (2001) β-Tubulin, ITS and group I intron sequences challenge the species pair concept in Physcia aipolia and P. caesia. Mycologia 93:335–343Google Scholar
  201. Myllys L, Hognabba F, Lohtander K, Thell A, Stenroos S, Hyvonen J (2005) Phylogenetic relationships of Stereocaulaceae based on simultaneous analysis of beta-tubulin, GAPDH and SSU rDNA sequences. Taxon 54:605–618Google Scholar
  202. Nannfeldt JA (1932) Studien über die Morphologie und Systematik der nicht-lichenisierten inoperculaten Discomyceten. Nov Act Reg Soc Sci Nat Cherbourg 3:161–202Google Scholar
  203. Nash TH III (2008) Introduction. In: Nash TH III (ed) Lichen biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  204. Nelsen MP, Gargas A (2009) Assessing clonality and chemotype monophyly in Thamnolia (Icmadophilaceae). Bryologist 112:42–53Google Scholar
  205. Nelsen MP, Chavez N, Sackett-Hermann E, Thell A, Randlane T, Divakar PK, Rico VJ, Lumbsch HT (2011) The cetrarioid core group revisited (Lecanorales: Parmeliaceae). Lichenologist 43:537–551Google Scholar
  206. Nimis PL (1998) A critical appraisal of modern generic concepts in lichenology. Lichenologist 30:427–438Google Scholar
  207. Øvstedal DO, Lewis Smith RI (2001) Lichens of Antarctica and South Georgia: a guide to their identification and ecology. Studies in polar research. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  208. Padovan AC, Sanson GF, Brunstein A, Briones MR (2005) Fungi evolution revisited: application of the penalized likelihood method to a Bayesian fungal phylogeny provides a new perspective on phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates of Ascomycota groups. J Mol Evol 60:726–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Palmqvist K, Dahlman L, Jonsson A, Nash TH III (2008) The carbon economy of lichens. In: Nash TH III (ed) Lichen biology, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 182–215Google Scholar
  210. Pérez FL (1997) Geoecology of erratic lichens of Xanthoparmelia vagans in an equatorial Andean paramo. Plant Ecol 129:11–28Google Scholar
  211. Platt JL, Spatafora JW (1999) A re-examination of generic concepts of baeomycetoid lichens based on phylogenetic analyses of nuclear SSU and LSU ribosomal DNA. Lichenologist 31:409–418Google Scholar
  212. Plessl A (1963) Über die Beziehungen von Haustorienstypus and Organisationshöhe bei Flechten. Österr Bot Z 110:194–269Google Scholar
  213. Poelt J (1970) Das Konzept der Artenpaare bei den Flechten. Vortr Gesamtgeb Bot 4:187–198Google Scholar
  214. Poelt J (1972) Die taxonomische Behandlung von Artenpaaren bei den Flechten. Bot Not 125:77–81Google Scholar
  215. Poelt J (1973) Systematic evaluation of morphological characters. In: Ahmadjian V, Hale ME (eds) The lichens. Academic, New York, London, pp 91–115, and 599–632Google Scholar
  216. Poelt J (1987) On reductions of morphological structures in lichens. In: Peveling E (ed) Progress and problems in lichenology in the eighties, vol 25, Bibliotheca Lichenologica. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp 35–45Google Scholar
  217. Poinar GO, Peterson EB Jr, Platt JL (2000) Fossil Parmelia in new world amber. Lichenologist 32:263–269Google Scholar
  218. Poulsen RS, Schmitt I, Søchting U, Lumbsch HT (2001) Molecular and morphological studies on the subantarctic genus Orceolina (Agyriaceae). Lichenologist 33:323–329Google Scholar
  219. Printzen C (2010) Lichen systematics: the role of morphological and molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships. Prog Bot 71:233–278Google Scholar
  220. Rambold G, Triebel D (1992) The inter-lecanoralean associations, vol 48, Bibliotheca Lichenologica. J Cramer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  221. Rambold G, Triebel D, Hertel H (1993) Icmadophilaceae, a new family in the Leotiales. In: Feige GB, Lumbsch HT (eds) Phytochemistry and chemotaxonomy of lichenized Ascomycetes—a festschrift in honour of Siegfried Huneck, Bibliotheca Lichenologica. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp 217–240Google Scholar
  222. Rambold G, Friedl T, Beck A (1998) Photobionts in lichens: possible indicators of phylogenetic relationships? Bryologist 101:392–397Google Scholar
  223. Reeb V, Lutzoni F, Roux C (2004) Contribution of RPB2 to multilocus phylogenetic studies of the euascomycetes (Pezizomycotina, Fungi) with special emphasis on the lichen-forming Acarosporaceae and evolution of polyspory. Mol Phylogenet Evol 32:1036–1060PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Reynolds DR (1989) The bitunicate ascus paradigm. Bot Rev 55:1–52Google Scholar
  225. Rikkinen J (2002) Cyanolichens: an evolutionary overview. In: Rain AN, Bergman B, Rasmussen U (eds) Cyanobacteria in symbiosis. Kluwer, Netherlands, pp 31–72Google Scholar
  226. Rikkinen J, Poinar GO (2002) Fossilised Anzia (Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) from European Tertiary amber. Mycol Res 106:984–990Google Scholar
  227. Rivas Plata E, Lumbsch HT (2011) Parallel evolution and phenotypic disparity in lichenized fungi: a case study in the lichen-forming fungal family Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Lecanoromycetes: Ostropales). Mol Phylogenet Evol 61:45–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Rivas Plata E, Lücking R, Lumbsch HT (2012) A new classification for the family Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Lecanoromycetes: Ostropales). Fungal Divers 52:107–121Google Scholar
  229. Roux C, Bellemère A, Boissière JC, Esnault J, Janex-Favre MC, Letrouit MA, Wagner J (1986) Les bases de la systématique moderne des lichens. Bull Soc Bot France, Actual Bot 133:7–40Google Scholar
  230. Rosentreter R (1993) Vagrant lichens in North America. Bryologist 96:333–338Google Scholar
  231. Santesson R (1952) Foliicolous lichens. I: A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symb Bot Upsal 12:1–590Google Scholar
  232. Scheidegger C (1985) Systematische Studien zur Krustenflechte Anzina carneonivea (Trapeliaceae, Lecanorales). Nova Hedwigia 41:191–218Google Scholar
  233. Schmitt I, Lumbsch HT (2004) Molecular phylogeny of the Pertusariaceae supports secondary chemistry as an important systematic character set in lichen-forming ascomycetes. Mol Phylogenet Evol 33:43–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Schmitt I, Messuti MI, Feige GB, Lumbsch HT (2001) Molecular data support rejection of the generic concept in the Coccotremataceae (Ascomycota). Lichenologist 33:315–321Google Scholar
  235. Schmitt I, Lumbsch HT, Sochting U (2003) Phylogeny of the lichen genus Placopsis and its allies based on Bayesian analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial sequences. Mycologia 95:827–835PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Schmitt I, Mueller G, Lumbsch HT (2005) Ascoma morphology is homoplaseous and phylogenetically misleading in some pyrenocarpous lichens. Mycologia 97:362–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Schmitt I, Yamamoto Y, Lumbsch HT (2006) Phylogeny of Pertusariales (Ascomycotina): resurrection of Ochrolechiaceae and new circumscription of Megasporaceae. J Hattori Bot Lab 100:753–764Google Scholar
  238. Schmitt I, del Prado R, Grube M, Lumbsch HT (2009) Repeated evolution of closed fruiting bodies is linked to ascoma development in the largest group of lichenized fungi (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota). Mol Phylogenet Evol 52:34–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Schmitt I, Frankhauser JD, Sweeney K, Spribille T, Kalb K, Lumbsch HT (2010) Gyalectoid Pertusaria species form a sister-clade to Coccotrema (Ostropomycetidae, Ascomycota) and comprise the new lichen genus Gyalectaria. Mycology 1:75–83Google Scholar
  240. Schmitt I, Otte J, Parnmen S, Sadowska-Des AD, Lücking R, Lumbsch HT (2012) A new circumscription of the genus Varicellaria (Pertusariales, Ascomycota). MycoKeys 4:23–26Google Scholar
  241. Schmull M, Miadlikowska J, Pelzer M, Stocker-Wörgötter E, Hofstetter V, Fraker E, Hodkinson BP, Reeb V, Kukwa M, Lumbsch HT, Kauff F, Lutzoni F (2011) Phylogenetic affiliations of members of the heterogeneous lichen-forming fungi of the genus Lecidea sensu Zahlbruckner (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota). Mycologia 103:983–1003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Schoch C, Sung GH, López-Giráldez F, Townsend JP, Miadlikowska J, Hofstetter V, Robbertse B, Matheny B, Kauff F, Wang Z, Gueidan C, Andrie RM, Trippe K, Ciufetti LM, Wynns A, Fraker E, Hodkinson BP, Bonito G, Groenewald JZ, Arzanlou M, De Hoog GS, Crous PW, Hewitt D, Pfister D, Peterson K, Gryzenhout M, Wingfield MJ, Aptroot A, Suh SO, Blackwell M, Hillis DM, Griffith GW, Castlebury LA, Rossman A, Lumbsch HT, Lücking R, Büdel B, Rauhut A, Diederich P, Ertz D, Geiser DM, Hosaka K, Inderbitzin P, Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Mostert L, O'Donnell K, Sipman H, Rogers JD, Shoemaker R, Sugiyama J, Summerbell RC, Untereiner WA, Johnston PR, Stenroos S, Zuccaro A, Dyer PS, Crittenden PD, Cole MS, Hansen K, Trappe JM, Yahr R, Lutzoni F, Spatafora JW (2009) The Ascomycota tree of life: a phylum-wide phylogeny clarifies the origin and evolution of fundamental reproductive and ecological traits. Syst Biol 58:224–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Sherwood MA (1977a) The ostropalean fungi. Mycotaxon 5:1–277Google Scholar
  244. Sherwood MA (1977b) The ostropalean fungi. II: Schizoxylon, with notes on Stictis, Acarosporina, Coccopeziza, and Carestiella. Mycotaxon 6:215–260Google Scholar
  245. Sherwood-Pike MA (1987) The ostropalean fungi. III: The Odontotremataceae. Mycotaxon 28:137–177Google Scholar
  246. Sipman HJM, Aptroot A (2001) Where are the missing lichens? Mycol Res 105:1433–1439Google Scholar
  247. Smith CW, Aptroot A, Coppins BJ, Fletcher A, Gilbert OL, James PW, Wolseley PA (2009) The lichens of Great Britain and Ireland. British Lichen Society, The Natural History Museum, LondonGoogle Scholar
  248. Smith RM, Thompson K, Warren PH, Gaston KJ (2010) Urban domestic gardens (XIII): composition of the bryophyte and lichen floras, and determinants of species richness. Biol Conserv 143:873–882Google Scholar
  249. Solhaug KA, Gauslaa Y, Nybakken L, Bilger W (2003) UV-induction of sun-screening pigments in lichens. New Phytol 158:91–100Google Scholar
  250. Spatafora J, Sung GH, Johnson D, Hesse C, O'Rourke B, Serdani M, Spotts R, Lutzoni F, Hofstetter V, Miadlikowska J, Reeb V, Gueidan C, Fraker E, Lumbsch T, Lücking R, Schmitt I, Hosaka K, Aptroot A, Roux C, Miller AN, Geiser DM, Hafellner J, Hestmark G, Arnold AE, Büdel B, Rauhut A, Hewitt D, Untereiner WA, Cole MS, Scheidegger C, Schultz M, Sipman H, Schoch CL (2006) A five-gene phylogeny of Pezizomycotina. Mycologia 98:1018–1028PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Spribille T, Muggia L (2013) Expanded taxon sampling disentangles evolutionary relationships and reveals a new family in Peltigerales (Lecanoromycetidae, Ascomycota). Fungal Divers 58:171–184Google Scholar
  252. Staiger B, Kalb K (1995) Haematomma-studien. I. Die Flechtengattung Haematomma, vol 59, Bibliotheca Lichenologica. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp 1–198Google Scholar
  253. Staiger B, Kalb K (1999) Acanthothecis and other graphidioid lichens with warty periphysoids or paraphysis-tips. Mycotaxon 73:69–134Google Scholar
  254. Staiger B, Kalb K, Grube M (2006) Phylogeny and phenotypic variation in the lichen family Graphidaceae (Ostropomycetidae, Ascomycota). Mycol Res 110:765–772PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Steiner J (1901) Über die Function und den systematischen Wert der Pycnoconidien der Flechten. In: Festschrift zur Feier des zweihunderjährigen Bestandes des K.K. Staatsgymnasiums im VIII. Bezirke Wiens, 1901. Kainz & Liebhart, Wien, pp 119–154Google Scholar
  256. Stenroos SK, DePriest PT (1998) SSU rDNA phylogeny of cladoniiform lichens. Am J Bot 85:1548–1559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Taylor JW, Berbee ML (2006) Dating divergences in the Fungal Tree of Life: review and new analyses. Mycologia 98:838–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Taylor JW, Berbee ML (2010) Dating the molecular clock in fungi—how close are we? Fungal Biol Rev 24:1–16Google Scholar
  259. Tehler A (1982) The species pair concept in lichenology. Taxon 31:708–717Google Scholar
  260. Tehler A (1996) Systematics, phylogeny and classification. In: Nash TH III (ed) Lichen biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 217–239Google Scholar
  261. Tehler A, Källersjö M (2001) Parmeliopsis ambigua and P. hyperopta (Parmeliaceae): species or chemotypes? Lichenologist 33:403–408Google Scholar
  262. Thell A, Stenroos S, Feuerer T, Kärnefelt I, Myllys L, Hyvönen J (2002) Phylogeny of cetrarioid lichens (Parmeliaceae) inferred from ITS and b-tubulin sequences, morphology, anatomy and secondary chemistry. Myc Prog 1:335–354Google Scholar
  263. Thüs H, Schultz M (2009) Fungi, part 1: Lichens. In: Büdel B, Gärtner G, Krienitz L, Preisig HR, Schagerl M (eds) Freshwater flora of Central Europe. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  264. Tibell L (1984) A reappraisal of the taxonomy of Caliciales. In: Hertel H, Oberwinkler F (eds) Beitrage zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt, vol 79, Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia. J. Cramer, Vaduz, pp 597–713Google Scholar
  265. Tibell L (1996) Caliciales. In: Flora Neotropica, vol 69. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NYGoogle Scholar
  266. Timdal E (1987) Problems of generic delimitation among squamiform members of the Lecideaceae. In: Peveling E (ed) Progress and problems in lichenology in the eighties, vol 25, Bibliotheca Lichenologica. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp 243–247Google Scholar
  267. Timdal E (1992) A monograph of the genus Toninia (Lecideaceae, Ascomycetes). Opera Bot 110:1–137Google Scholar
  268. Tschermak-Woess E (1953) Über wenig bekannte und neue Flechtengonidien III. Die Entwicklungsgeschichte von Leptosira thrombii nov. spec., der Gonidie von Thrombium epigaeum. Österr Bot Z 100:203–216Google Scholar
  269. Tschermak-Woess E (1984) Über die weite Verbreitung lichenisierter Sippen von Dictyochloropsis und die systematische Stellung von Myrmecia reticulata (Chlorophyta). Plant Syst Evol 147:299–322Google Scholar
  270. Tschermak-Woess E (1985) Elliptochloris bilobata kein ganz seltner Phycobiont. Herzogia 7:105–116Google Scholar
  271. Tschermak-Woess E (1988a) The algal partner. In: Galun M (ed) CRC handbook of lichenology, vol I. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 39–92Google Scholar
  272. Tschermak-Woess E (1988b) New and known taxa of Chlorella (Chlorophyceae): occurrence as lichen phycobionts and observations on living dictyosomes. Plant Syst Evol 159:123–139Google Scholar
  273. Tschermak-Woess E, Poelt J (1976) Vezdaea, a peculiar lichen genus, and its phycobiont. In: Brown DH, Hawksworth DL, Bailey RH (eds) Lichenology: progress and problems. Academic, London, pp 89–105Google Scholar
  274. Vainio EA (1890) Étude sur la classification naturelle et la morphologie des lichens du Brésil. Acta Societatis Pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, vol 7. Héritiers J. Simelius, HelsingforsGoogle Scholar
  275. Velmala S, Myllys L, Halonen P, Goward T, Ahti T (2009) Molecular data show that Bryoria fremontii and B. tortuosa (Parmeliaceae) are conspecific. Lichenologist 41:231–242Google Scholar
  276. Vězda A, James PW (1973) Sarrameana paradoxa A. Vězda et P. James gen. nov et sp. nova, eine bemerkenswerte Flechte aus Neu-Kaledonien. Preslia 45:305–310Google Scholar
  277. Vězda A, Kantvilas G (1988) Sarrameana tasmanica, a new Tasmanian lichen. Lichenologist 20:179–182Google Scholar
  278. Vobis G (1977) Studies on the germination of lichen conidia. Lichenologist 9:131–136Google Scholar
  279. Vobis G (1980) Bau und Entwicklung der Flechten-Pycnidien und ihrer Conidien, vol 14, Bibliotheca Lichenologica. J. Cramer, VaduzGoogle Scholar
  280. Wedin M, Tibell L (1997) Phylogeny and evolution of Caliciaceae, Mycocaliciaceae, and Sphinctrinaceae (Ascomycota), with notes on the evolution of the prototunicate ascus. Can J Bot 75:1236–1242Google Scholar
  281. Wedin M, Wiklund E (2004) The phylogenetic relationships of Lecanorales suborder Peltigerineae revisited. Symb Bot Upsal 34:469–475Google Scholar
  282. Wedin M, Döring H, Mattsson JE (1999) A multi-gene study of the phylogenetic relationships of the Parmeliaceae. Mycol Res 103:1185–1192Google Scholar
  283. Wedin M, Döring H, Nordin A, Tibell L (2000a) Small subunit rDNA phylogeny shows the lichen families Caliciaceae and Physciaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycotina) to form a monophyletic group. Can J Bot 78:246–254Google Scholar
  284. Wedin M, Döring H, Ekman S (2000b) Molecular phylogeny of the lichen families Cladoniaceae, Sphaerophoraceae, and Stereocaulaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycotina). Lichenologist 32:171–187Google Scholar
  285. Wedin M, Doring H, Gilenstam G (2004) Saprotrophy and lichenization as options for the same fungalspecies on different substrata: environmental plasticity and fungal lifestyles in the Stictis-Conotrema complex. New Phytol 164:459–465Google Scholar
  286. Wedin M, Wiklund E, Crewe A, Döring H, Ekman S, Nyberg Å, Schmitt I, Lumbsch HT (2005) Phylogenetic relationships of Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota) as revealed by analyses of mtSSU and nLSU rDNA sequence data. Myc Res 109:159–172Google Scholar
  287. Wedin M, Jørgensen PM, Wiklund E (2007) Massalongiaceae fam. nov., an overlooked monophyletic group among the cyanobacterial lichens (Peltigerales, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota). Lichenologist 39:61–67Google Scholar
  288. Wedin M, Wiklund E, Jørgensen PM, Ekman S (2009) Slippery when wet: phylogeny and character evolution in the gelatinous cyanobacterial lichens (Peltigerales, Ascomycetes). Mol Phylogenet Evol 53:862–871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Wedin M, Jørgensen PM, Ekman S (2011) Vahliellaceae, a new family of cyanobacterial lichens (Peltigerales, Ascomycetes). Lichenologist 43:67–72Google Scholar
  290. Westberg M, Arup U, Kärnefelt I (2007) Phylogenetic studies in the Candelariaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) based on nuclear ITS DNA sequence data. Myc Res 111:1277–1284Google Scholar
  291. Westberg M, Frödén P, Wedin M (2009) A monograph of the genus Placomaronea (Ascomycota, Candelariales). Lichenologist 41:513–527Google Scholar
  292. Widhelm T, Lumbsch HT (2011) The phylogenetic placement of Miltideaceae inferred from ribosomal DNA sequence data. In: Bates ST, Bungartz F, Lücking R, Herrera-Campos MA, Zambrano A (eds) Biomonitoring, ecology, and systematics of lichens. Festschrift Thomas H. Nash III, vol 106, Bibliotheca Lichenologica. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp 365–373Google Scholar
  293. Winka K, Ahlberg C, Eriksson OE (1998) Are there lichenized Ostropales? Lichenologist 30:455–462Google Scholar
  294. Wooolfit M, Bromham L (2003) Inceased rates of sequence evolution in endosymbiotic bacteria and fungi with small effective population size. Mol Biol Evol 20:1545–1555Google Scholar
  295. Zahlbruckner A (1903–1907) Lichenes. B. Spezieller Teil. In: Engler A, Prantl K (eds) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, vol I(1). Engelmann, Leipzig, pp 49–249Google Scholar
  296. Zahlbruckner A (1926) Lichenes. B. Specieller Teil. In: Engler A (ed) Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 8, 2nd edn. Engelmann, Leipzig, pp 61–270Google Scholar
  297. Zhou QM, Wei JC (2006) A new genus and species Rhizoplacopsis weichingii in a new family Rhizoplacopsidaceae (Ascomycota). Mycosystema 25:376–385Google Scholar
  298. Zhou QM, Wei JC (2007) A new order Umbilicariales J.C. Wei & Q.M. Zhou (Ascomycota). Mycosystema 26:40–45Google Scholar
  299. Zoller S, Lutzoni F (2003) Slow algae, fast fungi: exceptionally high nucleotide substitution rate differences between lichenized fungi Omphalina and their symbiotic green algae Coccomyxa. Mol Phylogenet Evol 29:629–640PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cécile Gueidan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • David J. Hill
    • 3
  • Jolanta Miadlikowska
    • 4
  • Francois Lutzoni
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Life SciencesThe Natural History MuseumLondonUK
  2. 2.CSIRO, NRCA, Australian National HerbariumCanberraAustralia
  3. 3.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of BristolBristolUK
  4. 4.Department of BiologyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations