Immunofluorescence Mapping

  • Gabriela Pohla-GuboEmail author
  • Martin Laimer
  • Johann W. Bauer
  • Helmut Hintner


Immunofluorescence mapping (IFM) is a laboratory technique widely used for the classification of bullous skin diseases. Based on the principles of either direct (DIF) or indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), the method finds its application in acquired immunobullous diseases (AIBD) as well as in different subtypes of the hereditary form of epidermolysis bullosa (EBH).

For the diagnosis of the distinct EBH subtypes, the so-called antigen mapping (AgM) demonstrates (1) the level of split formation (intraepidermal, junctional, dermolytic) as well as (2) the expression of a specific structural protein in the skin (normal, reduced, or lacking).

In AIBD, the so-called salt split skin test (SSST = direct and indirect antibody mapping, AbM) aids in the differential diagnosis of disorders such as the pemphigoid diseases and various subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) or bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (BSLE). The AbM shows the location of binding of autoantibodies and depicts the level of blistering within the skin (intraepidermal, junctional, dermolytic).

Both methods, the AgM and the AbM, reflect important diagnostic information for the clinician with regard to patient consultation about the course (and prognosis) of the respective disease.


Bullous Pemphigoid Epidermolysis Bullosa Lamina Densa Basement Membrane Zone Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Antibody mapping


Antigen mapping


Acquired immunobullous diseases


Basement membrane zone


Bullous pemphigoid


Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus


Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa


Direct immunofluorescence


Epidermolysis bullosa


Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita


Epidermolysis bullosa hereditaria


Epidermolysis bullosa simplex


Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay


Immunofluorescence mapping


Indirect immunofluorescence


Junctional epidermolysis bullosa

JEB-gen intermed

Junctional epidermolysis bullosa, generalized intermediate

JEB-gen sev

Junctional epidermolysis bullosa, generalized severe


Normal human skin


Salt split skin test


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriela Pohla-Gubo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Martin Laimer
    • 2
  • Johann W. Bauer
    • 2
  • Helmut Hintner
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology and EB House AustriaGeneral Hospital Salzburg/Salzburger Landesklinikum (SALK), Paracelsus Medical University (PMU) SalzburgSalzburgAustria
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyGeneral Hospital Salzburg, Paracelsus Medical UniversitySalzburgAustria

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