Rule by the Party: Party Rule, Tutelage and Transformation Towards Constitutionalism
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With the success of Wuchang Uprising and Qing Emperor’s abdication, Sun Yat-sen and his comrades made true on their promise of expelling “the barbarians”. Yet they had failed to deliver on the other one, namely, “create a people’s republic”. In fact, soon after the establishment of ROC, the power fell into the hands of Yuan Shikai, who betrayed revolutionary ideals by proclaiming himself an emperor. Yuan’s short-lived reign ended shortly after his death, leaving behind a country in disarray. Constitutionalism and state building had hitherto all but halted; moreover, with divergence amongst different political forces deepened, war erupted, plunging the country back into chaos.