Advertisement

Assessing Economic Benefits of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi as a Potential Indicator of Soil Health

  • L. K. AbbottEmail author
  • S. Lumley
Chapter
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 41)

Abstract

A measure of the presence, function and economic value of arbuscular mycorrhizas is proposed as a potential indicator of soil health. The roles of hyphae in soil include enhancing the efficiency of plant access to nutrients, especially phosphorus, facilitating plant access to water under water-limiting conditions, protection of soil organic matter, and strengthening resilience against disease. As such, mycorrhizas can influence economic benefits through their direct and indirect effects on plants associated with chemical, physical and biological components of soil fertility. Although the presence of mycorrhizas is pivotal to many soil processes, their potential contributions can be overridden by soil management decisions that do not take them into account. Nevertheless, it is difficult to quantify the economic benefits of mycorrhizas in agricultural ecosystems. Risk minimisation strategies can be used to deal with some or all of the factors that impede realistic economic valuation of mycorrhizas. However, without even rudimentary local knowledge of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agricultural ecosystems, there is potential for management practices to fail to consider fully, and consequently fail to capture, benefits from these widespread and potentially beneficial soil organisms especially if their contribution is difficult to quantify.

Keywords

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Economic Benefit Mycorrhizal Fungus Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Mycorrhizal Colonisation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abbott LK, Murphy DV (eds) (2003) Soil biological fertility: a key to sustainable land use in agriculture. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbott LK, Robson AD, Gazey C (1992) Selection of inoculant VAM fungi. In: Norris JR, Read DJ, Varma AK (eds) Methods in microbiology: experiments with mycorrhizas. Academic Press, London, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  3. Abbott LK, Robson AD (1984) The effect of root density, inoculum placement and infectivity of inoculum on the development of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas. New Phytol 97:285–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Abbott LK, Robson AD (1985) Formation of external hyphae in soil by four species of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol 99:245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Albrechtova J, Latr A, Nederost L, Pokluda R, Posta K, Vosatka M (2012) Dual inoculation with mycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi applicable in sustainable cultivation improves the yield and nutritive value of onion. Sci World J, Article ID 374091, 8 ppGoogle Scholar
  6. Azćon-Aguilar C, Barea JM (1996) Arbuscular mycorrhizas and biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens – an overview of the mechanisms involved. Mycorrhiza 6:457–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker R, Ruting B (2014) Environmental policy analysis: a guide to non-market valuation. Staff Working Paper, Productivity Commission, Australian Government. Accessed online 1 April 2014; www.pc.gov.au/research/staff-working/non-market-valuation
  8. Bishop J (ed) (2013) The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity in business and enterprise. Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon, p 296Google Scholar
  9. Brito I, Goss MJ, De Carvalho M (2012) Effect of tillage and crop on arbuscular mycorrhiza colonisation of winter wheat and triticale under Mediterranean conditions. Soil Use Manage 28:202–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chaurasia B (2004) Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza: a potential biofertiliser. ENVIS Newsl: Himal Ecol 1:1–2Google Scholar
  11. Delian E, Chira A, Chira L, Savulescu E (2011) Arbuscular mycorrhizae: an overview. SW J Horticult Biol Environ 2:167–192Google Scholar
  12. Dobell AR (1995) Environmental degradation and the religion of the market. In: Coward H (ed) Population, consumption and the environment. State University of New York Press, Albany, pp 229–250Google Scholar
  13. Endlweber K, Scheu S (2007) Interactions between mycorrhizal fungi and Collembola: effects on root structure of competing plant species. Biol Fertil Soils 43:741–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Evelyn H, Kapoor R, Giri B (2009) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review. Ann Bot 104:1263–1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gazey C, Abbott LK, Robson AD (1992) The rate of development of mycorrhizas affects the onset of sporulation and production of external hyphae by two species of Acaulospora. Mycol Res 96:643–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gazey C, Abbott LK, Robson AD (2004) Indigenous and introduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi contribute to plant growth in two agricultural soils from south-western Australia. Mycorrhiza 14:355–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Graham JH, Abbott LK (2000) Wheat responses to aggressive and non-aggressive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil 220:207–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gutjahr C, Paszkowski U (2013) Multiple control levels of root system remodelling in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Front Plant Sci 4: Article 204. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00294
  19. Hilou A, Zhang H, Franken P, Hause B (2014) Do jasmonates play a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced local bioprotection of Medicago truncatula against root rot disease caused by Aphanomyces euteiches? Mycorrhiza 24:45–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jastrow JD, Miller RM, Lussenhop J (1998) Contributions of interacting biological mechanisms to soil aggregate stabilization in restored prairie. Soil Biol Biochem 30:905–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johnson NC (2010) Resource stoichiometry elucidates the structure and function of arbuscular mycorrhizas across scales. New Phytol 185:631–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnson NC, Graham JH (2013) The continuum concept remains a useful framework for studying mycorrhizal functioning. Plant Soil 363:411–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Juniper S, Abbott LK (1993) Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas and soil salinity. Mycorrhiza 4:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Koide RT, Peoples MS (2012) On the nature of temporary yield loss in maize following canola. Plant Soil 360:259–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lehmann J, Joseph S (eds) (2009) Biochar for environmental management, science and technology. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Lewandowski TJ, Dunfield KE, Antunes PM (2013) Isolate identify determines plant tolerance to pathogen attack in assembled mycorrhizal communities. PLoS One 8:e61329. doi: 10.1371/journal/pone.0061329 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Loy DR (1997) The religion of the market. J Am Acad Relig 65(2):275–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lumley S (2013) Sordid Boon? The context of sustainability in historical and contemporary global economics. Academica Press, Palo AltoGoogle Scholar
  29. Manoharan PT, Shanmugaiah V, Balasubramanian N, Gomathinayagam S, Sharma MP, Muthuchelian K (2010) Influence of AM fungi on the growth and physiological status of Erythrina variegata Linn. grown under different water stress conditions. Eur J Soil Biol 46:151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Martinez-Alier J (1987) Ecological economics. Energy, environment and society. Basil Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  31. McGonigle TP, Miller MH, Evans DG, Fairchile GL, Swan JA (1990) A new method which gives an objective measure of colonization of roots by arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol 115:495–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McGonigle TP (1988) A numerical analysis of published field trials with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Funct Ecol 2:473–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McGonigle TP (2001) On the use of non-linear regression with the logistic equation for changes with time of percentage root length colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza 10:249–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mickan B, Abbott LK, Stephanova K, Solaiman ZM (submitted) Demonstrated mechanisms for interactions between biochar and mycorrhizal fungi in water-deficient agricultural soilGoogle Scholar
  35. Miller M, McGonigle T, Addy H (1994) An economic approach to evaluate the role of mycorrhizas in managed ecosystems. Plant and Soil 159:27–35Google Scholar
  36. Pearce D (1995) Blueprint 4. Capturing global environmental value. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Pearce D (2002) An intellectual history of environmental economics. Annu Rev Energy Environ 27:57–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pearson JN, Abbott LK, Jasper DJ (1993) Mediation of competition between two colonizing VA mycorrhizal fungi by the host plant. New Phytol 123:93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pearson JN, Abbott LK, Jasper AD (1994) Phosphorus, soluble carbohydrates and the competition between two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing subterranean clover. New Phytol 127:101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pearson JM, Schweiger P (1993) Scutellospora calospora (Nicol and Gerd) associated with subterranean clover – dynamics of colonization, sporulation and soluble carbohydrates. New Phytol 127:697–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pearson JM, Schweiger P (1994) Scuttelosposa calospora (Nicol and Gerd) Walker and Sanders associated with subterranean clover produces non-infective hyphae during sporulation. New Phytol 124:215–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pimental D, Wilson C, McCallum C, Huang R, Dwen P, Flack J, Tran Q, Saltman T, Cliff B (1997) Economic and environmental benefits of biodiversity. Bioscience 47:747–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rillig MC, Mummey DL (2006) Tansley review – mycorrhizas and soil structure. New Phytol 171:41–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ryan MH, Angus JK (2003) Arbuscular mycorrhizae in wheat and field pea crops on a low P soil: increased Zn uptake but no increase in P-uptake or yield. Plant Soil 250:225–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ryan MH, Kirkegaard JA (2012) The agronomic relevance of arbuscular mycorrhizas in the fertility of Australian extensive cropping systems. Agricult Ecocsyst Environ 163:37–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sano SM, Abbott LK, Solaiman Z, Robson AD (2002) Influence of liming, inoculum level and inoculum placement on root colonization of subterranean clover. Mycorrhiza 12:285–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schnepf A, Roose T, Schweiger P (2008) Growth model for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. J R Soc Interface 5:773–784PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schulz C (2001) Effect of (vesicular-) arbuscular mycorrhiza on survival and post-vitro development of micropropagated oil palms (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Doctoral Thesis, University of GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  49. Schwartz MW, Hoeksema JD, Gehring CA, Johnson NC, Klironomos JN, Abbott LK, Pringle A (2006) The promise and the potential consequences of the global transport of mycorrhizal fungal inoculum. Ecol Lett 9:501–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schweiger PF, Robson AD, Barrow NJ, Abbott LK (2007) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from three general induce two-phase plant growth responses on a high P-fixing soil. Plant Soil 292:181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shi P, Abbott LK, Banning NC, Zhao B (2012) Comparison of morphological and molecular genetic quantification of relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within roots. Mycorrhiza 22:501–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Singh R, Sunit KS, Alok K (2013) Synergy between Glomus fasciculatum and a beneficial Pseudomonas in reducing root diseases and improving yield and forskolin content in Coleus forskohlii Briq. under organic field conditions. Mycorrhiza 23:35–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Smith SE, DJ Read (1996) Mycorrhizal symbiosis, 2nd edn. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith SE, Read DJ (2008) Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, London, p 800Google Scholar
  55. Smith FA, Smith SE (2011) What is the significance of the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of many economically important crop plants? Plant Soil 348:63–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Smith SE, Smith FA (2012) Fresh perspectives on the roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plant nutrition and growth. Mycologia 104:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Smith FA, Jakobsen I, Smith SE (2000) Spatial differences in acquisition of soil phosphate between two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in symbiosis with Medicago truncatula. New Phytologist 147:357–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Steinaker DF, Wilson SD (2008) Scale and density dependent relationships among roots, mycorrhizal fungi and collembola in grassland and forest. Oikos 117:703–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Thonar C, Frossard E, Smilauer P, Jansa J (2014) Competition and facilitation in synthetic communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Mol Ecol 23:733–746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Thonar C, Schnepf A, Frossard E, Roose T, Jansa J (2011) Traits related to differences in function among three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil 339:231–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. UNEP (2014) ‘Valuing nature’, green economy briefing paper. United Nations Environment Program. www.unep.org/greeneconomy/ResearchProducts/GEBriefingPapers/. Accessed on 3 April 2014
  62. Veresoglou SD, Malley JM (2012) A model that explains diversity patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Ecol Model 231:146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Watts-Williams S, Cavagnaro TR (2012) Arbuscular mycorrhizas modify tomato responses to soil zinc and phosphorus addition. Biol Fertil Soils 48:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Earth and EnvironmentThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia
  2. 2.Institute of AgricultureThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations