Liver-Directed Therapies in Neuroendocrine Tumors

  • Magaly ZappaEmail author
  • Annie Sibert
  • Mohamed Abdel-Rehim
  • Olivia Hentic
  • Maxime Ronot
  • Marie-Pierre Vullierme
  • Valérie Vilgrain
  • Philippe Ruszniewski


Presence of liver metastases in neuroendocrine tumors is a major factor altering both quality of life and prognosis. Surgery is recognized as the sole curative treatment. When it is not possible, radiological-directed therapies are crucial.

This chapter addresses the various roles, technical issues, clinical efficacy, and safety of thermal ablation (radiofrequency, microwave, and cryotherapy) and transarterial embolization (bland embolization, chemoembolization, and radioembolization) as liver-directed therapies.

The choice of management depends on liver burden and metastases pattern but also on origin of the primary tumor, tumor differentiation, and tumor proliferative activity.

The treatment of neuroendocrine liver metastases still needs to be standardized. Management in centers of expertise should be strongly encouraged in order to enable a multidisciplinary approach to limit morbidity and mortality.


Liver Metastasis Neuroendocrine Tumor Hormonal Symptom Bilioenteric Anastomosis Small Intestinal Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Magaly Zappa
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Annie Sibert
    • 1
  • Mohamed Abdel-Rehim
    • 1
  • Olivia Hentic
    • 3
  • Maxime Ronot
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marie-Pierre Vullierme
    • 1
  • Valérie Vilgrain
    • 1
    • 2
  • Philippe Ruszniewski
    • 3
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyHôpital Beaujon, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de ParisClichyFrance
  2. 2.Univ Paris Diderot, SorbonneParisFrance
  3. 3.Department of GastroenterologyHôpital Beaujon, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de ParisClichyFrance

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