Microorganisms for Biorefining of Green Biomass
Traditional green crops such as grass, clover, alfalfa as well as new (halophytic) green biomass of Salicornia have great potential to be utilised in the concept of the green biorefinery, where the first step is a wet fractionation of the biomass to yield a sugar- and protein-rich juice and a lignocellulosic pulp fraction.
An array of industrially important microorganisms is needed in order to efficiently convert green biomass into useful products such as lactic acid, l-lysine and ethanol using the concept of green biorefining. The first—and vital microorganism used—is lactic acid bacteria, which has the ability to quickly acidify the easy perishable juice fraction and convert it into a storable nutrient-rich medium, e.g. l-lysine fermentation. The acidification also leads to precipitation of the “leaf” protein of the juice which allows for separation of this fraction to yield a value-added protein product. The resulting brown juice can be used as medium for l-lysine fermentation, e.g. using Corynebacterium glutamicum. The pulp fraction which is primarily lignocellulose is suggested as a good substrate for ethanol fermentation after physicochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The most important microbes, given the current state of green biorefining, have been identified in this book chapter as Lactobacillus salivarius, Corynebacterium glutamicum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
KeywordsLactic Acid Lactic Acid Bacterium Corn Stover Ethanol Fermentation Corynebacterium Glutamicum
Part of this research is sponsored by The Sustainable Bioenergy Research Consortium (SBRC), with contributions from Masdar Institute, Boeing, UOP Honeywell, Etihad Airways and SAFRAN.
- Akbar E, Yaakob Z, Kamarudin SK, Ismail M, Salimon J (2009) Characteristic and composition of Jatropha curcas oil seed from Malaysia and its potential as biodiesel feedstock feedstock. Eur J Sci Res 29(3):396–403Google Scholar
- Anasontzis GE, Zerva A, Stathopoulou PM, Haralampidis K, Diallinas G, Karagouni AD, Hatzinikolaou DG (2011) Homologous overexpression of xylanase in Fusarium oxysporum increases ethanol productivity during consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosics. J Biotechnol 152(1):16–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Andersen M, Kiel P (1999) Method for treating organic waste materials. Eur Pat Appl WO 00/56912Google Scholar
- Bansal N, Tewari R, Gupta JK, Soni R, Soni SK (2011) A novel strain of Aspergillus niger producing a cocktail of hydrolytic depolymerising enzymes for the production of second generation biofuels. BioResources 6(1):552–569Google Scholar
- Cogan TM, Hill C (1993) Cheese starter cultures. In: Fox PF (ed) Cheese: chemistry, physics and microbiology, vol 1, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 193–255Google Scholar
- Doores S (1993) Organic acids. In: Organic A, Davidson PM, Branen AL (eds) Antimicrobials in foods, 2nd edn. Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Driehuis F, Oude Elferink SJWH, Van Wikselaar PG (2001) Fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of grass silage inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri, with or without homofermentative lactic acid bacteria. Grass Forage Sci 56(4):330–343. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2494.2001.00282.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Golias H, Dumsday GJ, Stanley GA, Pamment NB (2002) Evaluation of a recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strain for ethanol production from cellulose by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation: comparison with native cellobiose-utilising yeast strains and performance in co-culture with thermotolerant yeast and. Zymomonas mobilisJ Biotechnol 96(2):155–168Google Scholar
- Kamm B, Kamm M (2004) Principles of biorefineries, vol 64. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Kerfai S, Fernández A, Mathé S, Alfenore S, Arlabosse P (2011) Production of green juice with an intensive thermo-mechanical fractionation process. Part II: effect of processing conditions on the liquid fraction properties. Chem Eng J 167(1):132–139. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2010.12.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muck R (1993) The role of silage additives in making high quality silage. Paper presented at the Silage production from seed to animal. Proceedings of the national silage production conference, Syracuse, New York, FebGoogle Scholar
- Payton MA, Hartley BS (1985) Mutants of Bacillus stearothermophilus lacking NAD-linked l-lactate dehydrogenase. FEMS Microbiol Lett 26(3):333–336Google Scholar
- Rodrussamee N, Lertwattanasakul N, Hirata K, Limtong S, Kosaka T, Yamada M (2011) Growth and ethanol fermentation ability on hexose and pentose sugars and glucose effect under various conditions in thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 90(4):1573–1586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sheorain V, Banka R, Chavan M (2000) Ethanol production from sorghum. Paper presented at the technical and institutional options for sorghum grain mold management: proceedings of an international consultationGoogle Scholar
- Stratton RW, Wong HM, Hileman JI (2010) Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from alternative jet fuels. PARTNER Project 28:133Google Scholar
- Sveinsdottir M, Sigurbjornsdottir MA, Orlygsson J (2011) Ethanol and hydrogen production with thermophilic bacteria from sugars and complex biomass, Progress in biomass and bioenergy production. In Tech, Útgefandi, pp 359–394Google Scholar
- Thomsen MH (2005) Lactic acid fermentation of brown juice in the green crop drying plant. IB2 – University of Southern DenmarkGoogle Scholar
- Treuber M (1996) Lactic acid bacteria. In: Biotechnology, vol 3, 2nd edn. Weinheim, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Whittenbury R (1962) An investigation of the lactic acid bacteria. Dissertation/Thesis, ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing U6 - ctx_ver = Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc = info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&rfr_id = info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt = info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation&rft.genre = dissertation&rft.title = An + investigation + of + the + lactic + acid + bacteria&rftGoogle Scholar