Advertisement

Psoriasis

  • Rosita Saraceno
  • Andrea Chiricozzi
  • Sergio ChimentiEmail author

Abstract

Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by great variation in prevalence within and between countries because of geographical, environmental, and genetic factors. Psoriasis seems to be most prevalent in Caucasian population and less frequent in yellow-brown individuals and in black populations.

Keywords

Psoriasis Psoriatic arthritis Comorbidities TNF-alpha IL-17 

Abbreviations

5-MOP

Bergapten

8-MOP

8-Methoxsalen

BMI

Body mass index

BSA

Body surface area

CsA

Cyclosporine A

DCs

Dendritic cell

DMARDs

Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs

EMA

European Medicines Agency

FAEs

Fumaric acid esters

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

GLB

Golimumab

LS-PGA

Lattice System Physician’s Global Assessment

MED

Minimal erythema dose (MED)

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)

MTX

Methotrexate

NAFLD

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

NAPSI

Nail Psoriasis Severity Index

NASH

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

PASI

Psoriasis Area and Severity Index

PEGylated

Polyethylene glycolylated

PGA

Physician Global Assessment

PsA

Psoriatic arthritis

PUVA

Photochemotherapy with psoralens (PUVA)

SAPASI

Self-administered PASI

SPI

Salford Psoriasis Index

Th

T helper

References

  1. Flytström I, Stenberg B, Svensson A, Bergbrant IM. Methotrexate vs. cyclosporin in psoriasis: effectiveness, quality of life and safety. A randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158(1):116–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Fredriksson T, Pettersson U. Severe psoriasis – oral therapy with a new retinoid. Dermatologica. 1978;157:238–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Heydendael VMR, Spuls PI, Opmeer BC, et al. Methotrexate versus cyclosporine in moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:658–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Nugteren-Huying WM, van der Schroeff JG, Hermans J, Suurmond D. Fumaric acid therapy for psoriasis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22(2 Pt 1):311–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Ackermann AB, Boer A, Bennin B, et al. Histologic diagnosis of inflammatory kin disease. 3rd ed. New York: Ardor Scribendi; 2005. p. 663–73.Google Scholar
  2. Albanesi C, De Pita O, Girolomoni G. Resident skin cells in psoriasis: a special look at the pathogenetic functions of keratinocytes. Clin Dermatol. 2007;25:581–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bergboer JG, Zeeuwen PL, Schalkwijk J. Genetics of psoriasis: evidence for epistatic interaction between skin barrier abnormalities and immune deviation. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:2320–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Caruso R, Botti E, Sarra M, et al. Involvement of interleukin-21 in the epidermal hyperplasia of psoriasis. Nat Med. 2009;15(9):1013–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chimenti MS, Saraceno R, Chiricozzi A, Giunta A, Chimenti S, Perricone R. Profile of certolizumab and its potential in the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2013;7:339–48.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Chiricozzi A, Chimenti S. Effective topical agents and emerging perspectives in the treatment of psoriasis. Expert Rev Dermatol. 2012;7(3):283–93.Google Scholar
  7. Chiricozzi A, Guttman-Yassky E, Sua’rez-Fariñas M, et al. Integrative responses to IL-17 and TNF-a in human keratinocytes account for key inflammatory pathogenic circuits in psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131(3):677–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chiricozzi A, Krueger JG. IL-17 targeted therapies for psoriasis. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2013;22(8):993–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Giardina E, Sinibaldi C, Novelli G. The psoriasis genetics as a model of complex disease. Curr Drug Targets- Inflamm Allergy. 2004;3:129–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Griffiths CE, Strober BE, van de Kerkhof P, et al. Comparison of ustekinumab and etanercept for moderate-to-severe psoriasis. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(2):118–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Henseler T, Christophers E. Psoriasis of early and late onset: characterization of two types of psoriasis vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985;13(3):450–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hijnen D, Knol EF, Gent YY, et al. CD8(+) T cells in the lesional skin of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients are an important source of IFN-g, IL-13, IL-17, and IL-22. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133(4):973–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Jenisch S, Henseler T, Nair RP, et al. Linkage analysis of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) markers in familial psoriasis: strong disequilibrium effects provide evidence for a major determinant in the HLA-B/-C region. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;63(1):191–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Kagami S, Rizzo HL, Lee JJ, et al. Circulating Th17, Th22, and Th1 cells are increased in psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130(5):1373–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Krueger JG. The immunologic basis for the treatment of psoriasis with new biologic agents. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46:1–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Leonardi CL, Kimball AB, Papp KA, et al. Efficacy and safety of ustekinumab, a human interleukin-12/23 monoclonal antibody, in patients with psoriasis: 76-week results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (PHOENIX 1). Lancet. 2008;371:1665–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu Y, Helms C, Liao W, et al. A genome-wide association study of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis identifies new disease loci. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000041.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Lowes MA, Kikuchi T, Fuentes-Duculan J, et al. Psoriasis vulgaris lesions contain discrete populations of Th1 and Th17 T cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:1207–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Mazzotta A, Esposito M, Schipani C, Chimenti S. Long-term experience with etanercept in psoriatic arthritis patients: a 3-year observational study. J Dermatolog Treat. 2009;20(6):354–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Nall LM, Farber EM. Psoriasis. New York: Yorke Medical Books; 1977. p. 331. Proc 2nd Int Sympos.Google Scholar
  21. Nickoloff BJ, Xin H, Nestle FO, Qin JZ. The cytokine and chemokine network in psoriasis. Clin Dermatol. 2007;25:568–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Nisticò SP, Saraceno R, Chiricozzi A, Giunta A, Di Stefani A, Zerbinati N. UVA-1 laser in the treatment of palmoplantar pustular psoriasis. Photomed Laser Surg. 2013;31(9):434–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Nograles KE, Zaba LC, Guttman-Yassky E, et al. Th17 cytokines interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 modulate distinct inflammatory and keratinocyte-response pathways. Br J Dermatol. 2008;159:1086–91.Google Scholar
  24. Ortega C, Fernandez AS, Carrillo JM, et al. IL-17-producing CD8+ T lymphocytes from psoriasis skin plaques are cytotoxic effector cells that secrete Th17-related cytokines. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:435–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Papp KA, Langley RG, Lebwhol MK, et al. Efficacy and safety of ustekinumab, a human interlcukin-12/23 antibody, in patients with psoriasis:52-week results from a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial (PHOENIX 2). Lancet. 2008;371(9625):1675–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ragaz A, Ackermann AB. Evolution, maturation, and regression of lesion of psoriasis. Am J Dermatopathol. 1979;1:199–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Richard MA, Barnetche T, Horreau C, Brenaut E, Pouplard C, Aractingi S, Aubin F, Cribier B, Joly P, Jullien D, Le Maître M, Misery L, Ortonne JP, Paul C. Psoriasis, cardiovascular events, cancer risk and alcohol use: evidence-based recommendations based on systematic review and expert opinion. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013;27 Suppl 3:2–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Rostami-Yazdi M, Clement B, Mrowietz U. Pharmacokinetics of anti-psoriatic fumaric acid esters in psoriasis patients. Arch Dermatol Res. 2010;302(7):531–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Saraceno R, Bavetta M, Zangrilli A, Chiricozzi A, Potenza C, Chimenti S, Chimenti MS. Adalimumab in the treatment of plaque-type psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2013;13(9):1325–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Schmitt J, Rosumeck S, Thomaschewski G, Sporbeck B, Haufe E, Nast A. Efficacy and safety of systemic treatments for moderate-to-severe psoriasis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Br J Dermatol. 2014;170(2):274–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Zerbinati N, Portale S, Palmieri B, Rottigni V, Iannitti T. A preliminary study to assess the efficacy of a new UVA1 laser for treatment of psoriasis. Photomed Laser Surg. 2012;30:610–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosita Saraceno
    • 1
  • Andrea Chiricozzi
    • 1
  • Sergio Chimenti
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUniversity of Rome Tor VergataRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations