• Meltem OnderEmail author
  • Mehmet Ali Gürer


Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease transmitted through the bite of a sandfly infected with leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar, is a systemic disease, and it is usually diagnosed by the presence the organisms in the spleen, lymph gland, or bone marrow aspirates. Cutaneous leishmaniasis usually occurs in the form of an ulcerated nodule on the skin Patients with lesions on the face or another cosmetically important area should be treated to reduce the size of the resultant scar. The most successful therapy is intralesional therapy. Systemic chemotherapy is recommended for very extensive lesions. Uncomplicated lesions do not need to be treated aggressively. Simple excision, cryosurgery, and topical therapy are usually sufficient.


  1. Loiseau PM, Cojean S, Schrével J. Sitamaquine as a putative antileishmanial drug candidate: from the mechanism of action to the risk of drug resistance. Parasite. 2011;18(2):115–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Sharquie VE, Najim RA, Farjou IB, Al Timimi DJ. Oral zinc sulphate in the treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001;26:21–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Aronson NE, Wortmann GW, Byrne WR, Howard RS, et al. A randomized controlled trial of local heat therapy versus intravenous sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of cutaneous Leishmania major infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;9(3):e628. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000628. Pubmed PMID.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asilian A, Sadeghinia A, Faghihi G, Momeni A. Comparative study of the efficacy of combined cryotherapy and intralesional meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) vs cryotherapy and intralesional meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) alone for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43:281–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boletis JN, Pefani SA, Stathakis C, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis in renal transplant recipients; successful treatment with liposomal amphotericin B(AmBisome). Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28:1308–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davidson RN. AIDS and leishmaniasis. Genitourin Med. 1997;10:298–9.Google Scholar
  5. El Darauti MA, al Rubaie SM. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Treatment with combined cryotherapy and intralesional stibogluconate injection. Int J Dermatol. 1990;29:56–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. El On J, Livshin R, Even PZ. Topical treatment of cutaneous leishmania. J Invest Dermatol. 1986;87:284–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gardlo K, Hanneken S, Ruzicka T, Neumann NJ. Photodynamic therapy of cutaneous leishmaniasis. A promising new treatment. Hautarzt. 2004;55:381–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Grevelink SA, Lerner EA. Leishmaniasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;34:257–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gürel MS, Tatlı M, Özbilge H, et al. Efficacy of cryotherapy and intralesional pentostam in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2000;30:169–76.Google Scholar
  10. Herwaldt BI. Leishmaniasis. Lancet. 1999;354:1191–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Herwaldt BI, Berman JD. Recommendations for treating leishmaniasis with sodium stibo-gluconate (Pentostam) and review of pertinent clinical studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992;46:296–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Higashi GI. Vaccines for parasitic diseases. Ann Rev Public Health. 1988;10:560–86.Google Scholar
  13. Kim DH, Chung HJ, Bleys J, Ghohestani RF. Is paromomycin an effective and safe treatment against cutenous leishmaniasis? A meta analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials. Plos Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:381e.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kochar DK, Aseri S, Sharma BV, Bumb RA, et al. The role of rifampicin in the management of cutaneous leishmaniasis. OJM. 2000;93:733–7.Google Scholar
  15. Kolde G, Luger T, Sorg C, et al. Successful treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis using systemic interferon gamma. Dermatology. 1996;192:56–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Memisoglu HR, Kotogyan A, Acar MA, et al. Cryotherapy in cases with leishmaniasis cutis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 1995;4:9–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mohammadzadeh M, Behnaz F, Golshan Z. Efficacy of glucantime for treatment of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in central Iran. J Infect Public Health. 2013;6(2):120–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Moskowitz PF, Kurban KA. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis; retrospectives and advances for the 21st century. Clin Dermatol. 1999;17:305–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mujtaba G, Khalid M. Weekly vs fort nightly intralesional meglumine antimoniate in cutaneous leishmaniasis. Int J Dermatol. 1999;38:607–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Oliveria M, Armondo A, Mathots M, et al. Intralesional therapy of American cutaneous leishmaniasis with pentavalent antimony in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil an area of leishmania transmission. Int J Dermatol. 1997;36:463–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Samady JA, Schwartz RA. Old world cutaneous leishmaniasis. Int J Dermatol. 1997;36:161–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sundar S, Chakravarty J. Leishmaniasis: an update of current pharmacotherapy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013;14:53–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sundar S, Singh A, Rai M, et al. Efficacy of miltefosine in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India after a decade of use. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:543–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Uzun S, Durdu M, Culha G, Allahverdiyev AM, Memisoglu HR. Clinical features, epidemiology, and efficacy and safety of intralesional antimony treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis: recent experience in Turkey. J Parasitol. 2004;90:853–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vardy D, Barenholes Y, Cohen R, et al. Topical amphotericin B for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Arch Dermatol. 1999;135:856–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zakai HA, Zimmo SK. Effects of itraconazole and terbinafine on leishmania major lesions ın BALB/C mice. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2000;94:787–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyLaser and Dermatology CentrumLandauGermany
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyGazi University Medical FacultyAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations