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Erythema Multiforme

  • Kristina SemkovaEmail author
  • Jana Kazandjieva

Abstract

Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute, immune-mediated dermatological condition affecting the skin and mucous membranes. It develops as a type IV hypersensitivity reaction to infections, medications, or other stimuli. The clinical presentation with target lesions and/or mucosal erosions with a history of exposure to a known trigger is usually sufficient for the diagnosis. Albeit self-limited in most cases, severe or recurrent forms of EM require systemic therapy.

Abbreviations

CMV

Cytomegalovirus

DIF

Immunofluorescence

DNA (pol)

DNA polymerase

EBV

Epstein-Barr virus

EM

Erythema multiforme

GVHD

Graft-versus-host disease

HSV

Human herpesvirus

IBD

Inflammatory bowel disease

IFN-γ

Interferon-γ

PMLE

Polymorphous light eruption

SJS

Stevens-Johnson syndrome

SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus

TEN

Toxic epidermal necrolysis

VZV

Varicella-zoster virus

References

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Further Reading

  1. Auquier-Dunant A, Mockenhaupt M, Naldi L, et al. Correlations between clinical patterns and causes of erythema multiforme majus, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis: results of an international prospective study. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138(8):1019–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Farthing PM, Maragou P, Coates M, et al. Characteristics of the oral lesions in patients with cutaneous recurrent erythema multiforme. J Oral Pathol Med. 1995;24(1):9–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hoffman LD, Hoffman MD. Dapsone in the treatment of persistent erythema multiforme. J Drugs Dermatol. 2006;5(4):375–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Michaels B. The role of systemic corticosteroid therapy in erythema multiforme major and Stevens-Johnson syndrome: a review of past and current opinions. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2009;2(3):51–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Ohtani T, Deguchi M, Aiba S. Erythema multiforme-like lesions associated with lesional infiltration of tumor cells occurring with adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47(4):390–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Schalock PC, Dinulos JG, Pace N, et al. Erythema multiforme due to mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in two children. Pediatr Dermatol. 2006;23(6):546–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Sokumbi O, Wetter DA. Clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of erythema multiforme: a review for the practicing dermatologist. Int J Dermatol. 2012;51:889–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  10. Urosevic-Maiwald M, Kerl K, Harr T, Allemann IB. Dapsone-induced erythema multiforme with neutropenia in a patient with linear IgA dermatosis: case report and review of the literature. Int J Dermatol. 2013;52(11):1369–71Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dermatopathology LaboratorySt. Thomas’ Hospital, St. John’s Institute of DermatologyLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology and VenereologyMedical University-SofiaSofiaBulgaria

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