Advertisement

Animal Leptospirosis

  • William A. Ellis
Chapter
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 387)

Abstract

Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals , which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosis , treatment , control and surveillance are applicable across the species.

Keywords

Genital Tract Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Incidental Infection Seroprevalence Study Infected Herd 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

My grateful thanks are due to Professor N. Wright for the picture of acute Canicola infection a dog kidney and to the late Dr. S.W. Michna for the photograph of acute Canicola infection in a pig.

References

  1. Abdulla PK, Karstad L, Fish NA (1962) Cultural and serological evidence of leptospirosis in deer in Ontario. Can Vet J 3:71–78PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Afzal M, Sakkir M (1994) Survey of antibodies against various infectious disease agents in racing Camels in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Revue-Scientifique-et-Technique -Office-International-des-Epizooties 13:787–792Google Scholar
  3. Agunloye CA (2001) Agglutinating antibodies to leptospires in slaughter pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria. Trop Veterinarian 19:188–190Google Scholar
  4. Agunloye CA (2002) Leptospiral agglutinating antibodies in sheep and goats in South-West Nigeria. Israel J Vet Med 57:28–30Google Scholar
  5. Agunloye CA, Nash AS (1996) Investigation of possible leptospiral infection in cats in Scotland. J Small Anim Pract 37:126–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmed R (1990) Leptospiral infection in lactating buffaloes. Pakistan Vet J 10:98–99Google Scholar
  7. Al-Khleif A, Damriyasa IM, Bauer C, Menge C, Herbst W (2009) A serosurvey for infections with Leptospira serovars in pigs from Bali, Indonesia. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 116:389–391Google Scholar
  8. Ali H, Saeid S (2012) Seroprevalence of leptospiral infection in Horses, Donkeys and Mules in East Azerbaijan province. Afr J Microbiol Res 6:4384–4387Google Scholar
  9. Alt DP, Bolin CA (1996) Preliminary evaluation of antimicrobial agents for treatment of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona infection in hamsters and swine. Am J Vet Res 57(59–62):24Google Scholar
  10. Alt DP, Zuerner RL, Bolin CA (2001) Evaluation of antibiotics for treatment of cattle infected with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo. J Am Vet Med Assoc 219:636–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Alt DP, Olsen S, Bolin C (2012) Concerns about Leptospira vaccine efficacy study. Am J Vet Res 73:928–929Google Scholar
  12. Alves CJ, Vasconcellos SA, Morais ZM, JSLd A, Clementino IJ, Azevedo SS, Santos FA (2003) Valuation the level of antibodies anti-leptospira in cats from the city of Patos, PB. La Clinica Veterinaria 8:48–54Google Scholar
  13. Anonymous (1966) C.D.C. Zoonosis surveillance: leptospiral serotypes distribution lists according to host and geographical area. U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  14. Anonymous (1974) C.D.C. Zoonosis surveillance: Leptopsiral serotypes distribution lists according to host and geographical area. Supplement July 1966 to July 1973. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  15. Anonymous (1998) Leptospirosis cases rising in United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 212:472Google Scholar
  16. Anonymous (2012) Cattle health certification standards, incorporating rules for cattle health schemes. CHeCS technical document:July 2012, 43ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Arbour J, Blais MC, Carioto L, Sylvestre D (2012) Clinical leptospirosis in three cats (2001–2009). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 48:256–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Arent Z, Frizzel C, Gilmore C, Mackie D, Ellis WA (2013) Isolation of leptospires from genital tract of sheep. Vet Rec 173:582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Athanazio DA, Silva EF, Santos CS, Rocha GM, Vannier-Santos MA, McBride AJA, Ko AI, Reis MG (2008) Rattus norvegicus as a model for persistent renal colonization by pathogenic Leptospira interrogans. Acta Trop 105:176–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Artiushin SC, Timoney JF, Balasuriya UB, Erol E, Sells SF (2012) Real-time PCR for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona type kennewicki in equine clinical specimens. J Equine Vet Sci 32:S53Google Scholar
  21. Ayanegui-Alcerreca MA, Wilson PR, Mackintosh CG, Collins-Emerson JM, Heuer C, Midwinter AC, Castillo-Alcala F (2007) Leptospirosis in farmed deer in New Zealand : a review. NZ Vet J 55:102–108Google Scholar
  22. Babudieri B, Carlos ER, Carlos ET Jr (1973) Pathogenic Leptospira isolated from toad kidneys. Trop Geogr Med 25:297–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bain CB, Cruz NC, Fortugaleza DO, Guzman LE (1988) Prevalence of antibodies to arboviruses and Leptospira interrogans among captive Phillipine monkeys. Philippine J Vet Med 25:19–22Google Scholar
  24. Balakrishnan G, Govindarajan R, Meenambigai TV, Manohar BM (2011) Seroprevalence of leptospirosis among sheep in Tamilnadu. Tamilnadu J Vet Anim Sci 7:285–289Google Scholar
  25. Barlow AM (2004) Reproductive failure in sows associated with Leptospira mozdok from a wildlife source. Pig J 54:123–131Google Scholar
  26. Batza HJ, Weiss R (1987) Occurrence of Leptospira antibodies in cat serum samples. Kleintierpraxis 32(171–172):174Google Scholar
  27. Baulu J, Everard COR, Everard JD (1987) Leptospires in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) on Barbados. J Wildl Dis 23:60–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Baverud V, Gunnarsson A, Engvall EO, Franzen P, Egenvall A, Engvall EO (2009) Leptospira seroprevalence and associations between seropositivity, clinical disease and host factors in horses. Acta Vet Scand 51:15PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bennett RB (1994) A computer-based decision model of leptospirosis control in dairy herds—what use for veterinary practice? cattle Practice 2:541–546Google Scholar
  30. Bahaman AR, Marshall RB, Blackmore DK, Hathaway SW (1980) Isolation of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo from sheep in New Zealand (correspondence). NZ Vet J 28(171):178Google Scholar
  31. Baitchman EJ, Calle PP, James SB, Linn MJ, Raphael BL (2006) Leptospirosis in Wied’s marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii). J Zoo Wildl Med 37:182–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bielanski A, Surujballi O (1998) Penetration of in vitro fertilized bovine embryos by Leptospira after in vitro exposure. Theriogenology 49:250Google Scholar
  33. Biscola NP, Fornazari F, Saad E, Richini-Pereira VB, Campagner MV, Langoni H, Barraviera B, Ferreira Junior RS (2011) Serological investigation and PCR in detection of pathogenic leptospires in snakes. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 31:806–811Google Scholar
  34. Bolin C (2002). Leptospirosis posing new threat for canine hepatic, renal disease. In Focus:31-34Google Scholar
  35. Bolin CA, Cassells JA (1990) Isolation of Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava from stillborn and weak pigs in Iowa. J Am Vet Med Assoc 196:1601–1604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Bolin CA, Cassells JA (1992) Isolation of Leptospira interrogans serovars bratislava and hardjo from swine at slaughter. J Vet Diagn Invest 4:87–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Bolin CA, Cassells JA, Zuerner RL, Trueba G (1991) Effect of vaccination with a monovalent Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis vaccine on type hardjo-bovis infection of cattle. Am J Vet Res 52:1639–1643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Bolin CA, Thiermann AB, Handsaker A, Foley JW (1989a) Effect of vaccination with a pentovalent leptospiral vaccine on Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis infection of pregnant cattle. Am J Vet Res 50:161–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bolin CA, Zuerner RL, Trueba G (1989b) Effect of vaccination with a pentavalent leptospiral vaccine containing Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis on type hardjo-bovis infection in cattle. Am J Vet Res 50:2004–2008PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Bolt I, Marshall RB (1995a) The epidemiology of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona in grower pig herds. NZ Vet J 43:10–15Google Scholar
  41. Bolt I, Marshall RB (1995b) The epidemiology of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona in grower pig herds. NZ Vet J 43:204Google Scholar
  42. Boqvist S, Montgomery JM, Hurst M, Thu HTV, Engvall EO, Gunnarsson A, Magnusson U (2003) Leptospira in slaughtered fattening pigs in southern Vietnam: presence of the bacteria in the kidneys and association with morphological findings. Vet Microbiol 93:361–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Boqvist S, Eliasson-Selling L, Bergström K, Magnusson U (2012) The association between rainfall and seropositivity to Leptospira in outdoor reared pigs. Vet J 193:135–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Borku MK, Kurtdede A, Aydin Y, Durgut R, Pekkaya S, Ozkanlar Y (2000) Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in cats and Dogs exhibiting chronic renal failure signs. Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi 47:281–289Google Scholar
  45. Borstel MV, Oppen TV, Glitz F, Fruhauf B, Deegen E, Boeve MH, Ohnesorge B (2005) Long-term results of pars-plana (double-port) vitrectomy in equine recurrent uveitis. Pferdeheilkunde 21:13–18Google Scholar
  46. Borstel MV, Oey L, Strutzberg-Minder K, Boeve MH, Ohnesorge B (2010) Direct and indirect detection of leptospires in vitreal samples of horses with ERU. Pferdeheilkunde 26:219–225Google Scholar
  47. Bryson DG, Ellis WA (1976) Leptospirosis in a British domestic cat. J Small Anim Pract 17:459–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Burgemeister R, Leyk W, Gossler R (1975) Studies on the occurrence of parasites and bacterial and viral infections in southern Tunisian dromedaries. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 82:352–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Cameron CE, Zuerner RL, Raverty S, Colegrove KA, Norman SA, Lamboum DM, Jeffiies SJ, Gulland FM (2008) Detection of pathogenic Leptospira bacteria in pinniped populations via PCR and identification of a source of transmission for zoonotic leptospirosis in the marine environment. J Clin Microbiol 46:1728–1733PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Carmona-Gasca AC, Lara LL, Castillo-Sanchez OL, Ramirez-Ortega MJ, Ko A, Palomera LC, de la Pena-Moctezuma A (2011) Detection of Leptospira santarosai and L. kirschneri in cattle: new isolates with potential impact in bovine production and public health. Veterinaria Mexico 42:277–288Google Scholar
  51. Cerqueira GM, McBride AJA, Hartskeerl RA et al (2010) Bioinformatics describes novel loci for high resolution discrimination of Leptospira isolates. PLoS One 5(10):1533Google Scholar
  52. Cerri D, Ebani VV, Fratini F, Pinzauti P, Andreani E (2003) Epidemiology of leptospirosis: observations on serological data obtained by a “Diagnostic Laboratory for Leptospirosis” from 1995 to 2001. Microbiologica 26:383–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Charon NW, Johnson RC, Muschel LH (1975) Antileptospiral activity in lower vertebrate sera. Infect Immun 12:1386–1391PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Chan K-W, Hsu Y-H, Hu W-L, Pan M-J, Lai J-M, Huang K-C, Chou S-J (2014) Serological and PCR detection of feline Leptospira in southern Taiwan. Vector Borne Zoon Dis 14:118–123Google Scholar
  55. Chiareli D, Cosate MRV, Moreira EC, Leite RC, Lobato FCF, da Silva JA, Teixeira JFB, Marcelino AP (2012) Control of leptospirosis in dairy cattle with autogenous vaccine in Santo Antonio do Monte, MG, Brazil. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 32:633–639Google Scholar
  56. Claus A, de Maele IV, Pasmans F, Gommeren K, Daminet S (2008) Leptospirosis in dogs: a retrospective study of seven clinical cases in Belgium. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 77:259–263Google Scholar
  57. Cortese V, Behan S, Galvin J, Penka D, Ramsey D, Bryson W, Lucas M (2007) Evaluation of two antimicrobial therapies in the treatment of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo infection in experimentally infected cattle. Vet Therap 8:201–208Google Scholar
  58. Cousins DV, Ellis TM, Parkinson J, McClashan CH (1989) Evidence for sheep as a maintenance host for Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo. Vet Rec 124:123–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Cox TE, Smythe LD, Leung LKP (2005) Flying foxes as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira species. J Wildl Dis 41:753–757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. da Silva RC, da Costa VM, Shimabukuro FH, Richini-Pereira VB, Menozzi BD, Langoni H (2012) Frequency of Leptospira spp. in sheep from Brazilian slaughterhouses and its association with epidemiological variables. Pesquisa Vet Bras 32:194–198Google Scholar
  61. Dehkordi FS, Taghizadeh F (2012) Prevalence and some risk factors associated with brucellosis and leptospirosis in aborted fetuses of ruminant species. Res Opin Anim Vet Sci 2:275–281Google Scholar
  62. Desvars A, Naze F, Benneveau A, Cardinale E, Michault A (2013) Endemicity of leptospirosis in domestic and wild animal species from Reunion Island (Indian Ocean). Epidemiol Infect 141:1154–1165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Dey S, Mohan CM, Kumar T, Ramadass P, Nainar AM, Nachimuthu K (2004) Recombinant Lipl32 antigen-based single serum dilution elisa for detection of canine leptospirosis. Vet Microbiol 103:99–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Dhaliwal GS, Murray RD, Dobson H, Montgomery J, Ellis WA (1996a) Effect of vaccination against Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo on milk-production and fertility in dairy cattle. Vet Rec 138:334–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Dhaliwal GS, Murray RD, Dobson H, Montgomery J, Ellis WA (1996b) Reduced conception rates in dairy cattle associated with serological evidence of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo infection. Vet Rec 139:110–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Dickeson D, Love DN (1993) A serological survey of dogs, cats and horses in south-eastern Australia for leptospiral antibodies. Aust Vet J 70:389–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Diesch SL, McCulloch WF, Braun JL, Ellinghausen HC (1966) Leptospires isolated from frog kidneys. Nature 209:939–940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Dixon P, Coppack R (2002) Equine recurrent uveitis. Vet Rec 150:556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Doosti A, Tamimian NH (2011) Diagnosis of leptospiral abortion in bovine by polymerase chain reaction. Global Veterinaria 7:79–82Google Scholar
  70. Doosti A, Ahmadi R, Arshi A (2012) PCR detection of leptospirosis in Iranian Camels. Bulgarian J Vet Med 15:178–183Google Scholar
  71. Dorjee S, Heuer C, Jackson R, West DM, Collins-Emerson JM, Midwinter AC, Ridler AL (2008) Prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in sheep in a sheep-only abattoir in New Zealand. NZ Vet J 56:164–170Google Scholar
  72. Egan J, Yearsley D (1987) Serological survey of leptospiral antibodies in cattle, sheep and pigs in the Republic of Ireland. Irish Vet J 41:213–214Google Scholar
  73. Elder JK, McKeon GM, Duncalfe F, Ward WH, Leutton RD (1986) Epidemiological studies on the ecology of Leptospira interrogans serovars pomona and hardjo in Queensland. Prev Vet Med 3:501–521Google Scholar
  74. Ellinghausen HC (1973) Growth teperatures, virulence, survival, and nutrition of leptospires. J Med Microbiol 6:487–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Ellis WA (1999). Equine leptospirosis. Equine infectious diseases VIII. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference, Dubai. R&W Publications (Newmarket) Ltd, Newmarket, pp 155–158, 23–26 March 1998Google Scholar
  76. Ellis WA (1994) Leptospirosis as a cause of reproductive failure. Vet Clin Nth Am Food Anim Pract 10:463–478Google Scholar
  77. Ellis WA (2010) Control of canine leptospirosis in Europe: time for a change? Vet Rec 167:602–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Ellis WA (2012) Leptospirosis. In: Zimmerman JJ, Karriker LA, Ramirez A, Swartz KJ, Stevenson GW (eds) Diseases of swine. Wiley, New York, pp 770–778Google Scholar
  79. Ellis WA, O’Brien JJ, Neill SD, Ferguson HW, Hanna J (1982a) Bovine leptospirosis: microbiological and serological findings in aborted fetuses. Vet Rec 110:147–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Ellis WA, O’Brien JJ, Neill SD, Hanna J (1982b) Bovine leptospirosis: serological findings in aborting Cows. Vet Rec 110:178–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Ellis WA, Bryson DG, Neill SD, McParland PJ, Malone FE (1983a) Possible involvement of leptospires in abortion, stillbirths and neonatal deaths in sheep. Vet Rec 112:291–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Ellis WA, O’Brien JJ, Cassells JA, Montgomery J (1983b) Leptospiral infection in horses in Northern Ireland: serological and microbiological findings. Equine Vet J 15:317–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Ellis WA, Bryson DG, O’Brien JJ, Neill SD (1983c) Leptospiral infection in aborted equine foetuses. Equine Vet J 15:321–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Ellis WA, O’Brien JJ, Bryson DG, Mackie DP (1985a) Bovine leptospirosis: some clinical features of serovar hardjo infection. Vet Rec 117:101–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Ellis WA, O’Brien JJ, Cassells JA, Neill SD, Hanna J (1985b) Excretion of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo following calving or abortion. Res Vet Sci 39:296–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Ellis WA, Montgomery J, Cassells JA (1985c) Dihydrostreptomycin treatment of bovine carriers of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo. Res Vet Sci 39:292–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Ellis WA, Songer JG, Montgomery J, Cassells JA (1986a) Prevalence of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo in the genital and urinary tracts of non pregnant cattle. Vet Rec 118:11–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ellis WA, McParland PJ, Bryson DG, Thiermann AB, Montgomery J (1986b) Isolation of leptospires from the genital tract and kidneys of aborted sows. Vet Rec 118:294–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Ellis WA, Cassells JA, Doyle J (1986c) Genital leptospirosis in bulls. Vet Rec 118:333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Ellis WA, McParland PJ, Bryson DG, Cassells JA (1986d) Boars as carriers of leptospires of the Australis serogroup on farms with an abortion problem. Vet Rec 118:563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ellis WA, McParland PJ, Bryson DG, Cassells JA (1986e) Prevalence of Leptospira infection in aborted pigs in Northern Ireland. Vet Rec 118:63–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Ellis WA, Thiermann AB (1986) Isolation of Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava from sows in Iowa. Am J Vet Res 47:1458–1460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Ellis WA, Thiermann AB, Montgomery J, Handsaker A, Winter PJ, Marshall RB (1988) Restriction endonuclease analysis of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo isolates from cattle. Res Vet Sci 44:375–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ellis WA, Montgomery JM, McParland PJ (1989) An experimental study with a Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava vaccine. Vet Rec 125:319–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Ellis WA, Montogomery JM, Thiermann AB (1991) Restriction endonuclease analysis as a taxonomic tool in the study of pig isolated belonging to the australis serogroup of Leptospira interrogans. J Clin Microbiol 29:957–961PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Ellis WA, Yan KT, McDowell SWJ, Mackie DP, Pollock JM, Taylor MJ (2000) Immunity to bovine leptospirosis. In: Proceedings of the 21st World Buiatrics Congress, pp 10601–10611Google Scholar
  97. Ezeh AO, Kmety E, Ellis WA, Addo PB, Adesiyun AA (1989) Characterisation of leptospires isolated from cattle and man in Plateau State, Nigeria. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties 8(1009–1020):1026Google Scholar
  98. Faine S (1963) Antibody in the renal tubles and urine of mice. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sic 41:81–91Google Scholar
  99. Farina R, Cerri D, Renzoni G, Andreani E, Mani P, Ebani V, Pedrini A, Nuvoloni R (1996) Leptospira interrogans in the genital tract of sheep. Research on ewes and rams experimentally infected with serovar hardjo (Hardjobovis). Microbiologica 19:235–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Feresu SB (1992) Isolation of Leptospira interrogans from kidneys of Zimbabwe beef cattle. Vet Rec 130:446–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Ferguson LC, Powers TE (1956) Experimental leptospirosis in pregnant swine. Am J Vet Res 17:471–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Ferris DH, Hanson LE, Hoerlein AB, Beamer PD (1960) Experimental infection of white-tailed deer with Leptospira pomona. Corn Vet 50:236–250Google Scholar
  103. Ferris DH, Rhoads WE, Hanson LE, Galton M, Manfield ME (1961) Research into the Nidality of Leptospira ballum in campestral host including the hog-nosed snake (Heterodon platyrhinus). Cornell Vet 51:406–419Google Scholar
  104. Flint SH, Marshall RB, Winter PJ (1986) Dual infections of red deer (Cervus elaphus) by Leptospira interrogans serovars copenhageni and hardjo. NZ Vet J 34:70–71Google Scholar
  105. Frantz JC, Hanson LE, Brown AL (1989) Effect of vaccination with a bacterin containing Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava on the breeding performance of swine herds. Am J Vet Res 50:1044–1047PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Frerichs GN, Maley AD (1980) Pseudoleptospires in blood culture [letter]. J Clin Pathol 33:905–906PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Gallagher A (2011) Leptospirosis in a dog with uveitis and presumed cholecystitis. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 47:162–167Google Scholar
  108. Gautam R, Wu CC, Guptill LF, Potter A, Moore GE (2010) Detection of antibodies against Leptospira serovars via microscopic agglutination tests in dogs in the United States, 2000–2007. J Am Vet Med Assoc 237:293–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Genovez ME, Scarcelli E, Piatti RM, Girio RJS, Cardoso MV, Miyashiro S, Castro V (2004) Leptospira spp. detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in thoroughbred equine semen—case report. Arquivos do Instituto Biologico (Sao Paulo) 71:546–548Google Scholar
  110. Gerritsen MJ, Koopmans MJ, Peterse D, Olyhoek T (1994) Sheep as maintenance host for Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo subtype hardjobovis. Am J Vet Res 55:1232–1237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Glosser JW, Sulzer CR, Eberhardt M, Winkler WG (1974) Cultural and serologic evidence of Leptospira interrogans serotype Tarassovi infection in turtles. J Wildl Dis 10:429–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Gravekamp C, Korver H, Montgomery J, Everard COR, Carrington D, Ellis WA, Terpstra WJ (1991) Leptospires isolated from toads and frogs on the island of Barbados. Int J Med Microbiol 275:403–411Google Scholar
  113. Greene CE, Sykes JE, Brown CA et al (2007) Leptospirosis. In: Greene CE (ed) Infectious diseases of the dog and cat, 3rd edn. Elsevier, St Louis, pp 402–417Google Scholar
  114. Hajikolaei MRH, Gorbanpour M, Haidari M, Abdollapour G (2005) Comparison of leptospiral infection in the horse and Donkey. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 49:175–178Google Scholar
  115. Hamond C, Martins G, Lilenbaum W, Medeiros MA (2012a) PCR detection of leptospiral carriers among seronegative horses. Vet Rec 171:105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Hamond C, Martins G, Lilenbaum W, Medeiros MA (2012b) Rapid and efficient diagnosis of leptospirosis in an aborted foal by PCR of gastric juice. Vet Microbiol 160:274–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Hamond C, Martins G, Lawson-Ferreira R, Medeiros MA, Lilenbaum W (2013a) The role of horses in the transmission of leptospirosis in an urban tropical area. Epidemiol Infect 141:33–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Hamond C, Martins G, Medeiros MA, Lilenbaum W (2013b) Presence of leptospiral DNA in semen suggests venereal transmission in horses. J Equine Sci 33:1157–1159Google Scholar
  119. Hartman EG, Brummelman B, Dikken H (1975) Leptospirae of serotype lora of the serogroup Australis isolated for the first time from swine in the Netherlands. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 100:421–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Hartman EG (1984) An IgM- and IgG-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect anti-leptospiral immunoglobulins in dogs. Ztlbt Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg Series A 257:508–510Google Scholar
  121. Hartskeerl RA, Goris MGA, Brem S, Meyer P, Kopp H, Gerhards H, Wollanke B (2004) Classification of Leptospira from the eyes of horses suffering from recurrent uveitis. J Vet Med Series B 51:110–115Google Scholar
  122. Hassanpour A, Imandar M, Abdollahpour GR, Mahsayekhi M (2011) Seroprevalence of leptospiral infection in ewes in Khoy-Iran. Adv Environ Biol 5:2033–2038Google Scholar
  123. Hathaway SC (1981) Leptospirosis in New Zealand: an ecological view. NZ Vet J 29:109–112Google Scholar
  124. Hathaway SC, Little TWA (1981) Prevalence and clinical significance of leptospiral antibodies in pigs in England. Vet Rec 108:224–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Hathaway SC, Blackmore DK (1981) Ecological aspects of the epidemiology of infection with leptospires of the Ballum serogroup in the black Rat (Rattus rattus) and the brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus) in New Zealand. J Hyg (Lond) 87:427–436Google Scholar
  126. Hathaway SC, Ellis WA, Little TW, Stevens AE, Ferguson HW (1983) Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in pigs: a new host-parasite relationship in the United Kingdom. Vet Rec 113:153–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Hathaway SC, Little TW, Pritchard DG (1986) Problems associated with the serological diagnosis of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo infection in bovine populations. Vet Rec 119:84–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Herrmann GP, Lage AP, Moreira EC, Haddad JPA, JRd R, Rodrigues RO, Leite RC (2004) Seroprevalence of agglutinins of anti-Leptospira sp in sheep from the Southeast and Southwest Meso-regions of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ciencia Rural 34:443–448Google Scholar
  129. Higgins RJ, Harbourne JF, Little TW, Stevens AE (1980) Mastitis and abortion in dairy cattle associated with Leptospira of the serotype hardjo. Vet Rec 107:307–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Hodges RT, Thomson J, Townsend KG (1979) Leptospirosis in pigs: the effectiveness of streptomycin in stopping leptospiruria. NZ Vet J 27:124–126Google Scholar
  131. Hyakutake S, Biasi PD, Belluomini HE, Santa Rosa CA (1980) Leptospiroses in Brazilian snakes. Int J Zoon 7:73–77Google Scholar
  132. Ibanez-Contreras A, Hernandez-Godinez B, Torres-Barranca JI, Melendez-Velez P (2010) Antibodies findings against Leptospira spp., of the serovars Panama, Lai, Australis, Shermani, and Patoc, in a group of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatto) in conditions of captivity. Archivos De Medicina Veterinaria 42:101–104Google Scholar
  133. Jaffe JE, Hartskeerl RA, Bolhuis HGH, Ahmed A, Houwers DJ (2007).Serological survey of leptospirosis in a Dutch primate colony and the local rodent population. In: Erkrankungen der Zootiere Verhandlungsbericht des 43 Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere, Edinburgh, 19–20 May 2007, pp 257–258Google Scholar
  134. Jagun AT, Ajayi OL, Ilugbo MO, Olugasa BO (2011) Isolation and prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans in slaughtered cattle in two abattoirs in southwestern Nigeria. In: Animal hygiene and sustainable livestock production. In: Proceedings of the 15th international congress of the international society for animal hygiene, vol 1. Vienna, 3–7 July 2011, pp 235–237Google Scholar
  135. Jamshidi S, Akhavizadegan MA, Bokaie S, Maazi N, Ali AG (2009) Serologic study of feline leptospirosis in Tehran, Iran. Iranian J Microbiol 1:32–36Google Scholar
  136. Jiang L, Lu Q, Luo Y, Ye J, Zhang Z, Xu B, Jiang LP, Lu QY, Luo Y, Ye JL, Zhang Z, Xu BX (2011) Application of a lipL32-PCR method for detection of Leptospira interrogans. Chinese J Vector Biol Cont 22:388–392Google Scholar
  137. Jimenez MA, Sanchez B, Pena L (2013) Itistopathological detection of subclinical leptospirosis in free-ranging Iberian Lynxes (Lynx pardinus). J Comp Pathol 148:55Google Scholar
  138. Johnson RC, Seiter CW (1976) Leptospira and their cultivation. Monograph Reheis Chem Co. Phoenix, Arizona, pp :1–13Google Scholar
  139. Kalsow CM, Dwyer AE (1998) Retinal immunopathology in horses with uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 6:239–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Kemenes F, Suveges T (1976) Leptospira—induced repeated abortion in sows. Acta Vet Acad Sci Hung 26:395–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Khalacheva M, Sherkov SH (1981) Outbreak of leptospirosis among buffaloes in Bulgaria. Veterinarna Sbirka 79:33–36Google Scholar
  142. Khbou MK, Hammami S, Kodjo A (2010) Anti-leptospires antibodies seroprevalence in sheep from the Fahs region, Tunisia. Revue De Medecine Veterinaire 161:185–192Google Scholar
  143. Kinde H, Hietala SK, Bolin CA, Dowe JT (1996) Leptospiral abortion in horses following a flooding incident. Equine Vet J 28:327–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Kingscote B (1988) Leptospiral antibodies in cattle in Alberta and evidence of an emerging serovar. Can Vet J 29:647–653PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Klaasen HLBM, van der Veen M, Molkenboer MJCH, Sutton D (2013) A novel tetravalent Leptospira bacterin protects against infection and shedding following challenge in dogs. Vet Rec 172:181PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Koizumi N, Muto M, Yamamoto S, Baba Y, Kudo M, Tamae Y, Shimomura K, Takatori I, Iwakiri A, Ishikawa K, Soma H, Watanabe H (2008) Investigation of reservoir animals of Leptospira in the northern part of Miyazaki prefecture. Jap J Infect Dis 61:465–468Google Scholar
  147. Koizumi N, Muto MM, Akachi S, Okano S, Yamamoto S, Horikawa K, Harada S, Funatsumaru S, Ohnishi M (2013) Molecular and serological investigation of Leptospira and leptospirosis in dogs in Japan. J Med Microbiol 62:630–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Kohm A (1988) Death of a polar bear cub from Leptospira autumnalis infection. Erkrankungen der Zootiere Verhandlungsbericht des 30 Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere, Sofia 1988 Berlin, German Democratic Republic; Akademie, pp 298–300Google Scholar
  149. Kulbrock M, Mv B, Rohn K, Distl O, Ohnesorge B (2013) Occurrence and severity of equine recurrent uveitis in warmblood horses—a comparative study. Pferdeheilkunde 29:27–36Google Scholar
  150. La-ard A, Amavisit P, Sukpuaram T, Wajjwalku W (2011) Evaluation of recombinant lig antigen-based ELISA for detection of leptospiral antibodies in canine sera. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 42:128–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Larsson CE, Santa RCA, Larsson M, Birgel EH, Fernandes WR, Paim GV (1985) Laboratory and clinical features of experimental feline leptospirosis. Int J Zoonoses 12:111–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Leon VL, Hermoso DMM, Garrido F (1987) Incidence of abortions caused by leptospirosis in sheep and goats in Spain. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 10:149–153Google Scholar
  153. Leonard F, Quinn PJ, Ellis WA (1992) Possible effect of ph on the survival of leptospires in cattle urine. Vet Rec 131:53–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Levett PN (2001) Leptospirosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 14:296–328PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Lilenbaum W, Morais ZM, Goncales AP, de Souza GO, Richtzenhain L, Vasconcellos SA (2007) First isolation of leptospires from dairy goats in Brazil. Brazil J Microbiol 38:507–510Google Scholar
  156. Lilenbaum W, Varges R, Brandao FZ, Cortez A, de Souza SO, Brandao PE, Richtzenhain LJ, Vasconcellos SA (2008) Detection of Leptospira spp. in semen and vaginal fluids of goats and sheep by polymerase chain reaction. Theriogenol 69:837–842Google Scholar
  157. Lilenbaum W, Varges R, Ristow P, Cortez A, Souza SO, Richtzenhain LJ, Vasconcellos SA (2009) Identification of Leptospira spp. carriers among seroreactive goats and sheep by polymerase chain reaction. Res Vet Sci 87:16–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Lilenbaum W, Varges R, Moraes IA, Ferreira AM, Pissinatti A (2005) Leptospiral antibodies in captive Lion tamarins (Leontopithecus sp.) in Brazil. Vet J 169:462–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Little TWA, Parker BNJ, Stevens AE, Hathaway SC, Markson LM (1981) Inapparent infection of sheep in Britain by leptospires of the Australis serogroup. Res Vet Sci 31:386–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Llorente P, Leoni L, Vivot MM (2002) Leptospirosis in South-American Camelids: a study on the serological prevalence in different regions of Argentina. Archivos De Medicina Veterinaria 34:59–68Google Scholar
  161. Mancia A, Ryan JC, Chapman RW, Wu QZ, Warr GW, Gulland FMD, Van Dolah FM (2012) Health status, infection and disease in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) studied using a canine microarray platform and machine-learning approaches. Dev Comp Immunol 36:629–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Marianelli C, Tarantino M, Astarita S, Martucciello A, Capuano F, Galiero G (2007) Molecular detection of Leptospira species in aborted fetuses of water Buffalo. Vet Rec 161:310–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Marin RE, Brihuega B, Romero G (2008) Seroprevalence of infectious diseases in Llamas from Jujuy province, Argentina. Vet Argent 25:281–287Google Scholar
  164. Martins G, Penna B, Hamond C, Leite RCK, Silva A, Ferreira A, Brandao F, Oliveira F, Lilenbaum W (2012) Leptospirosis as the most frequent infectious disease impairing productivity in small ruminants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Trop Anim Health Prod 44:773–777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Masuzawa T, Hashiguchi NR, Suzuki R, Shimizu T, Iwamoto Y, Morita T, Yanagihara Y (1991) Experimental lethal infection of Leptospira interrogans in mice treated with cyclophosphamide. Can J Microbiol 37:312–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Mathur KN, Khanna VK, Purohit AK (1984) Macroscopic plate agglutination results of serological examination of camels, cattle and goats for leptospirosis in Rajasthan. [Abstract]. Indian J Pub Hlth 28:61Google Scholar
  167. Matthias MA, Diaz MM, Campos KJ, Calderon M, Willig MR, Pacheco V, Gotuzzo E, Gilman RH, Vinetz JM (2005) Diversity of Bat-associated Leptospira in the Peruvian Amazon inferred by Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequences. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:964–974PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Matthews A (1999) Equine recurrent uveitis—an update. In Practice 21:370–376Google Scholar
  169. Mayer-Scholl A, Luge E, Draeger A, Nockler K, Kohn B (2013) Distribution of Leptospira serogroups in dogs from Berlin, Germany. Vector Borne Zoon Dis 13:200–202Google Scholar
  170. McKeown JD, Ellis WA (1986) Leptospira hardjo agalactia in sheep. Vet Rec 118:482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. McTague T (1997) Outbreak of Leptospira hardjo abortion in a lowland flock. Irish Vet J 50:128Google Scholar
  172. Michna SW (1970) Leptospirosis. Vet Rec 86:484–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Michna SW, Campbell RSF (1969) The isolation of Leptospira sejroe from the kidney of aborting cattle. Vet Rec 84:83–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Mitchell D, Robertson A, Corner AH, Boulanger P (1966) Some observations on the diagnosis and epidemiology of leptospirosis in swine. Can J Comp Med Vet Sci 30:211–217PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Modric Z, Knezevic N (1997) Leptospirosis in domestic cats (Felis domestica Briss.) in the Sisak area. Veterinarska Stanica 28:261–265Google Scholar
  176. Monahan AM, Callanan JJ, Nally JE (2008) Proteomic analysis of Leptospira interrogans shed in urine of chronically infected hosts. Infect Immun 76:4952–4958PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Monteiro RV, Fedullo LPL, Albuquerque CE, Lilenbaum W (2003) Leptospirosis in a giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Linnaeus, 1758) in Rio de Janeiro Zoo, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ciencia Veterinaria 10:126–127Google Scholar
  178. Moore GE, Guptill LF, Glickman NW, Caldanaro RJ, Aucoin D, Glickman LT (2006) Canine Leptospirosis, United States, 2002–2004. Emerg Infect Dis 12:501–503PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Moreira EC (1994) Avaliação de métodos para erradicação de leptospirosis em bovinos leiteiros. Tese de Doutorado Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, p 93Google Scholar
  180. Morse EV, Langham RF (1958) Experimental leptospirosis. III. Caprine Leptospira pomona infection. Am J Vet Res 19:139–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Moshkelani S, Javaheri-Koupaei M, Rabiee S, Moazeni M (2011) Detection of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from aborted bovine, ovine and caprine fetuses in Iran. Afr J Microbiol Res 5:4627–4630Google Scholar
  182. Muehldorfer K (2013) Bats and bacterial pathogens: a review. Zoonoses Public Health 60:93–103Google Scholar
  183. Mylonakis ME, Bourtzi-Hatzopoulou E, Koutinas AF, Petridou E, Saridomichelakis MN, Leontides L, Siochu A (2005) Leptospiral seroepidemiology in a feline hospital population in Greece. Vet Rec 156:615–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Nally JE, Monahan AM, Miller IS, Bonilla-Santiago R, Souda P, Whitelegge JP (2011) Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the urine of reservoir hosts of leptospirosis. PLoS ONE 6:26046Google Scholar
  185. Natarajaseenivasan K, Ratnam S (1999) Isolation of Leptospira javanica from sheep. Indian J Anim Sci 69:759–761Google Scholar
  186. Neiffer DL, Klein EC, Wallace-Switalski C (2001) Leptospira infection in two black Rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis Michaeli). J Zoo Wildl Med 32:476–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Nervig RM, Garrett LA (1979) Use of furosemide to obtain bovine urine samples for leptospiral isolation. Am J Vet Res 40:1197–1200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Oliveira SJD, Bortolanza F, Passos DT, Pires Neto JAS, Fallavena LCB, TdA W (2007) Molecular diagnosis of Leptospira spp. in culled sows. Brazil J Vet Res Anim Sci 44:18–23Google Scholar
  189. Oliveira FCS, Azevedo SS, Pinheiro SR, Batista CSA, Moraes ZM, Souza GO, Goncales AP, Vasconcellos SA (2010) Risk factors associated with leptospirosis in cows in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 30:398–402Google Scholar
  190. Oliveira ST, Messick JB, Biondo AW, dos Santos AP, Stedile R, Dalmolin ML, de Sa Guimaraes AM, Mohamed AS, Riediger IN, Diaz Gonzalez FH (2012) Exposure to Leptospira spp. in sick dogs, shelter dogs and dogs from an endemic area: points to consider. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae 40:1056Google Scholar
  191. Otaka DY, Martins G, Hamond C, Penna B, Medeiros MA, Lilenbaum W (2012) Serology and PCR for bovine leptospirosis: herd and individual approaches. Vet Rec 170:338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Pande PG, Sekariah PC, Ramachandra Iyer PK, Shukla RR (1961) Cerebrospinal leptospirosis in Buffalo Calves due to Leptospira hebdomadis. Curr Sci 30:147–148Google Scholar
  193. Pekelder JJ, Westenbrink F, Vellema P, Peterse DJ, Bokhout BA, Franken P (1993) Serological study of the occurrence of L. hardjo in sheep in The Netherlands. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 118:433–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Perea A, Garcia R, Maldonado A, Tarradas MC, Luque I, Astorga R, Arenas A (1994) Prevalence of antibodies to different Leptospira interrogans serovars in pigs on large farms. J Vet Med Series-B 41:512–516Google Scholar
  195. Pereira MM, Da Silva JJ, Pinto MA, Da Silva MF, Machado MP, Lenzi HL, Marchevsky RS (2005) Experimental leptospirosis in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus): a new model for studies of severe pulmonary leptospirosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72:13–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Perez J, Goarant C (2010) Rapid Leptospira identification by direct sequencing of the diagnostic PCR products in New Caledonia. BMC Microbiol 10:325PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Perolat P, Poingt JP, Vie JC, Jouaneau C, Baranton G, Gysin J (1992) Occurrence of severe leptospirosis in a breeding colony of Squirrel monkeys. Am J Trop Med Hyg 46:538–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Picardeau M (2013) Diagnosis and epidemiology of leptospirosis. Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses 43:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Pinna MH, Martins G, Pinheiro ACO, Almeida DS, Oria AP, Lilenbaum W (2012) Detection of anti-Leptospira antibodies in captive nonhuman primates from Salvador, Brazil. Am J Primatol 74:8–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Pintore A, Palmas B, Noworol M, Canu M, Fiori E, Picardeau M, Tola A, Piredda I, Ponti MN (2012) First record of Leptospira isolation from wild boars of Sardinia. European Leptospirosis Conference, DubrovnikGoogle Scholar
  201. Poonacha KB, Donahue JM, Giles RC, Hong CB, Petritesmurphy MB, Smith BJ, Swerczek TW, Tramontin RR, Tuttle PA (1993) Leptospirosis in equine fetuses, stillborn foals, and placentas. Vet Pathol 30:362–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Power SB (1991) Diagnosing Leptospira in pigs. Vet Rec 128:43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Pritchard GC (1999) Bulk milk antibody testing for Leptospira hardjo infection. cattle Practice 7:59–61Google Scholar
  204. Pumarola A, Mora R, Pumarola T (1987). A serological survey on Leptospira infections of pigs and cattle in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Trop Geogr Med 39:S7; Proceedings of 5th Mtg Europ Leptospira Workers, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  205. Rapley WA, Cranfield MR, Mehren KG, Vas SI, Barker IK, Lathe F (1981) A natural outbreak of leptospirosis in a captive black tailed deer (Odocoileus heminonus columbianus) herd and in Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli) at the Metropolitan Toronto zoo. In: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual proceedings, Seattle, Washington, USA, pp 115–120Google Scholar
  206. Reid AC, Herron AJ, Hines ME, Orchard EA, Altman NH (1993) Leptospirosis in a white lipped Tamarin (Saguinus labiatus). Lab Anim Sci 43:258–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Reilly GAC, Bailie NC, Morrow WT, McDowell SWJ, Ellis WA (1994) Feline stillbirths associated with mixed Salmonella typhimurium and Leptospira infection. Vet Rec 135:608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Renaud C, Andrews S, Djelouadji Z, Lecheval S, Corrao-Revol N, Buff S, Demont P, Kodjo A (2013) Prevalence of the Leptospira serovars Bratislava, Grippotyphosa, Mozdok and Pomona in French dogs. Vet J 196:126–127Google Scholar
  209. Ribotta M, Higgins R, Perron D (1999) Swine leptospirosis: low risk of exposure for humans. Can Vet J 40:809–810PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Ridler A, Heuer C, West D, Dorjee S (2005). Leptospirosis in sheep in New Zealand. In: Proceedings of 6th international sheep veterinary congress, Crete, Greece, June 2005, pp 270–271Google Scholar
  211. Rinehart CL, Zimmerman AD, Buterbaugh RE, Jolie RA, Chase CCL (2012a) Efficacy of vaccination of cattle with the Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno component of a pentavalent Leptospira bacterin against experimental challenge with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis. Am J Vet Res 73:735–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Rinehart CL, Jolie RA, Zimmerman AD, Buterbaugh RE, Chase CCL (2012b) Concerns about Leptospira vaccine efficacy study. Response. Am J Vet Res 73:929Google Scholar
  213. Rocha T (1990) Isolation of Leptospira interrogans serovar mozdok from aborted swine fetuses in Portugal. Vet Rec 126:602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Rodrigues ALB, Girio RJS, Esper CR, Rodrigues LH, Magajevski FS, Oliveira MA (2003) Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona bovine semen survive contaminated experimentally. Revista Brasileira de Reproducao Animal 27:636–643Google Scholar
  215. Romberg J, Lang S, Balks E, Kamphuis E, Duchow K, Loos D, Rau H, Motitschke A, Jungbäck C (2012) Potency testing of veterinary vaccines: the way from in vivo to in vitro. Biologicals 40:100–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Romero PM, Astudillo HM, Sanchez VJ, Gonzalez GL, Varela AN (2012) Antibody titers against Leptospira sp., in primates from Matecana zoo, Pereira, Colombia. Revista MVZ Cordoba 17:3224–3230Google Scholar
  217. Rosadio AR, Veliz AA, Castillo DH, Yaya LK, Rodriguez HA, Rivera GH, Wheeler JC (2012) Seroprevalence to pathogenic Leptospira in alpacas and vicunas from Huancavelica and Ayacucho, Peru. Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Peru 23:350–356Google Scholar
  218. Ross L, Jakowski R, Bolin C, Kiupel M (2011) Retrospective immunohistochemical detection of Leptospira in dogs with renal pathology. Int J Appl Res Vet Med 9:324–331Google Scholar
  219. Roth EE, Adams WV, Sanford GE, Newman K, Moore M, Greer B (1964) Isolation of Leptospira pomona from white tailed deer in Louisiana. Am J Vet Res 25:259–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Ryan EG, Leonard N, O’Grady L, Doherty ML, More SJ (2012) Herd-level risk factors associated with Leptospira Hardjo seroprevalence in Beef/Suckler herds in the Republic of Ireland. Vet Ireland J 2:449–458Google Scholar
  221. Sanhueza JM, Heuer C, West D (2013) Contribution of Leptospira, Neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhea virus to fetal loss of beef cattle in New Zealand. Prev Vet Med 112:90–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Scarcelli E, Piatti RM, Fedullo JDL, Simon F, Cardoso MV, Castro V, Miyashiro S, Genovez ME (2003) Leptospira spp. detection by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in clinical samples of captive black-capped capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Brazil J Microbiol 34:143–146Google Scholar
  223. Schollum LM, Blackmore DK (1981) The serological and cultural prevalence of leptospirosis in a sample of feral goats. NZ Vet J 29:104–106Google Scholar
  224. Schonberg A, Hahnhey B, Kampe U, Schmidt K, Ellis WA (1992) The isolation and identification of Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava from a pig in Germany. J Vet Med Series B 39:362–368Google Scholar
  225. Sebastian M, Giles R, Roberts J, Poonacha K, Harrison L, Donahue J, Benirschke K (2005) Funisitis associated with leptospiral abortion in an equine placenta. Vet Pathol 42:659–662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Shigidi MTA (1974) Animal leptospirosis in the Sudan. Brit Vet J 130:528–531Google Scholar
  227. Shive RJ, Green SS, Evans LB, Garner FM (1969) Leptospirosis in barbary Apes (Macaca sylvana). J Am Vet Med Assoc 155:1176–1178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Silva EF, Brod CS, Cerqueira GM, Bourscheidt D, Seyffert N, Queiroz A, Santos CS, Ko AI, Dellagostin OA (2007) Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep. Vet Microbiol 121:144–149PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Smith CR, Corney BG, McGowan MR, McClintock CS, Ward W, Ketterer PJ (1997) Amoxycillin as an alternative to dihydrostreptomycin sulphate for treating cattle infected with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo. Aust Vet J 75:818–821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Smyth JA, Fitzpatrick DA, Ellis WA (1999) Stillbirth/perinatal weak Calf syndrome: a study of Calves infected with Leptospira. Vet Rec 145:539–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Spiess BM (2008) New findings on the treatment of periodic ophthalmia. Praktische Tierarzt 89:648–650Google Scholar
  232. Stasilevich ZK, Dzhikidze EK, Anisimova TA, Krylova RI (2000) Serological investigations for leptospirosis in monkeys of the Adler monkey colony. Baltic J Lab Anim Sci 10:33–38Google Scholar
  233. Stokes WS, Kulpa-Eddy J, Brown K, Srinivas G, McFarland R (2012) Recent progress and future directions for reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal use in veterinary vaccine potency and safety testing: a report from the 2010 NICEATM-ICCVAM International Vaccine Workshop. Dev Biol (Basel) 134:9–21Google Scholar
  234. Subathra M, Senthilkumar TMA, Ramadass P (2013) Recombinant OmpL1 protein as a diagnostic antigen for the detection of canine leptospirosis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 169:431–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Subharat S, Wilson PR, Heuer C, Collins-Emerson JM (2010) Investigation of localisation of Leptospira spp. in uterine and fetal tissues of non-pregnant and pregnant farmed deer. NZ Vet J 58:281–285Google Scholar
  236. Subharat S, Wilson PR, Heuer C, Collins-Emerson JM (2011) Vaccination for leptospirosis improved the weaning percentage of 2-year-old farmed red deer hinds in New Zealand. NZ Vet J 59:191–196Google Scholar
  237. Subharat S, Wilson PR, Heuer C, Collins-Emerson JM (2012a) Growth response and shedding of Leptospira spp. in urine following vaccination for leptospirosis in young farmed deer. NZ Vet J 60:14–20Google Scholar
  238. Subharat S, Wilson PR, Heuer C, Collins-Emerson JM (2012b) Longitudinal serological survey and herd-level risk factors for Leptospira spp. serovars Hardjo-bovis and Pomona on deer farms with sheep and/or beef cattle. NZ Vet J 60:215–222Google Scholar
  239. Szonyi B, Agudelo-Flórez P, Ramírez M, Moreno N, Ko AI (2011) An outbreak of severe leptospirosis in capuchin (Cebus) monkeys. Vet J 188:237–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Tangeman LE, Littman MP (2013) Clinicopathologic features and atypical presentations of naturally occurring canine leptospirosis: 51 cases (2000–2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 243:1316–1322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Thaipadungpanit J, Chierakul W, Wuthiekanun V, Limmathurotsakul D, Amornchai P, Boonslip S, Smythe LD, Limpaiboon R, Hoffmaster AR, Day NPJ, Peacock SJ (2011) Diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR assays targeting 16S rRNA and lipL32 genes for human leptospirosis in Thailand: a case-control study. PLoS ONE 6:16236Google Scholar
  242. Thiermann AB (1982) Experimental leptospiral infections in pregnant cattle with organisms of the hebdomadis serogroup. Am J Vet Res 43:780–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Thorne T (1985) Experimental Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in pronghorn antelope. In: Proceedings of 88th annual meeting USAHA 1984 Fort Worth Texas 1984, p 634Google Scholar
  244. Timoney JF, Kalimuthusamy N, Velineni S, Donahue JM, Artiushin SC, Fettinger M (2011) A unique genotype of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona type kennewicki is associated with equine abortion. Vet Microbiol 150:349–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Tochetto C, Flores MM, Kommers GD, Barros CSL, Fighera RA (2012) Pathological aspects of leptospirosis in dogs: 53 cases (1965–2011). Pesquisa Vet Bras 32:430–443Google Scholar
  246. Tomordy E, Hassig M, Spiess BM (2010) The outcome of pars plana vitrectomy in horses with equine recurrent uveitis with regard to the presence or absence of intravitreal antibodies against various serovars of Leptospira interrogans. Pferdeheilkunde 26:251–254Google Scholar
  247. Torten, M (1979) Leptopsirosis. In: Stoenner H, Kaplan W, Torten M (eds) A.C.R.C. Handbook series in Zoonoses, vol 1. C.R.C. Press, Boca RatoGoogle Scholar
  248. Trap D, Garin BB (1988) Leptospirosis in sheep. Bulletin Mensuel de la Societe Veterinaire Pratique de France 72(283–286):288–292Google Scholar
  249. Tripathy DN, Hanson LE, Bedoya M, Mansfield ME (1985) Experimental infection of pregnant and lactating goats with Leptospira interrogans serovars hardjo and szwajizak. Am J Vet Res 46:2515–2518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Tucunduva de Faria M, Athanazio DA, Goncalves Ramos EA, Silva EF, Reis MG, Ko AI (2007) Morphological alterations in the kidney of Rats with natural and experimental Leptospira infection. J Comp Pathol 137:231–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Tulsiani SM, Cobbold RN, Graham GC, Dohnt MF, Burns MA, Leung LKP, Field HE, Smythe LD, Craig SB (2011) The role of fruit Bats in the transmission of pathogenic leptospires in Australia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 105:71–84PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Twigg GI, Hughes DM, McDairmid A (1971) Occurrence of leptospirosis in thoroughbred horses. Equine Vet J 2:52–55Google Scholar
  253. Upadhye AS, Rajasekhar M, Ahmed SN, Krishnappa G (1983) Isolation of Leptospira Andaman from an active clinical case of jaundice in a Buffalo. Indian Vet J 60:319–320Google Scholar
  254. Van Schaik G, Schukken YH, Nielen M, Dijkhuizen AA, Barkema HW, Benedictus G (2002) Probability of and risk factors for introduction of infectious diseases into Dutch SPF dairy farms: a cohort study. Prev Vet Med 54:279–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Verma A, Kumar P, Babb K, Timoney JF, Stevenson B (2010) Cross-reactivity of antibodies against leptospiral recurrent uveitis-associated proteins A and B (LruA and LruB) with eye proteins. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:778Google Scholar
  256. Verma A, Stevenson B, Adler B (2013) Leptospirosis in horses. Vet Microbiol 167:61–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Vermunt JJ, West DM, Cooke MM, Alley MR, Collins Emerson J (1994) Observations on three outbreaks of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona infection in lambs. NZ Vet J 42:133–136Google Scholar
  258. Vijayachari P, Sugunan AP, Sehgal SC (2001) Evaluation of microscopic agglutination test as a diagnostic tool during acute stage of leptospirosis in high and low endemic areas. Indian J Med Res 114:99–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Vijayarani K, Reghana J, Sridhar R, Jayathangaraj MG, Thirumurugan R, Raj GD, Kumanan K (2010) A report on leptospirosis in a wild dog. Indian Vet J 87:497–498Google Scholar
  260. Weber MFVJ, Verhoeff J (2001) Integrated disease control in dairy herds: a case study from the veterinarians’ viewpoint. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 126:340–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Wernery U, Thomas R, Raghavan R, Syriac G, Joseph S, Georgy N (2008) Seroepidemiological studies for the detection of antibodies against 8 infectious diseases in dairy dromedaries of the United Arab Emirates using modern laboratory techniques—Part II. J Camel Pract Res 15:139–145Google Scholar
  262. Wood JLN, Townsend HGG (1999) Leptospiral infections associated with disease and fertility in horses. J Anim Breed 3:39–45Google Scholar
  263. Zieris H (1991) Epidemiology of Leptospira interrogans serovar mozdok in former GDR. Monatsh Veterinarmed 46:355–358Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.OIE Leptospira Reference LaboratoryAFBI Veterinary Sciences DivisionBelfastNorthern Ireland

Personalised recommendations