The Increasing Importance of the Hair Follicle Route in Dermal and Transdermal Drug Delivery
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The enhancement of percutaneous penetration of topically applied substances and drugs is gaining more and more importance as dermal application allows site-specific and dose-adapted therapy bypassing gastrointestinal metabolism and is mostly associated with fewer side effects. In addition to the intercellular penetration pathway, also the advantages of the follicular penetration pathway have been recently revealed. Due to its architectural structure, the hair follicle is predestined as a penetration and reservoir organ as it provides diminished barrier properties in its lower infundibulum allowing fast access for smaller substances into the deeper viable skin layers and thus into the circulation, on the one hand, and storaging capacities of several days for larger substances such as particulate substances, which were shown to penetrate especially deeply into the hair follicles, on the other hand.
Promising new concepts to combine these advantageous follicular attributes involve the application of external or internal stimuli for controlled drug release from particles. The particles only serve to transport the drug deeply into the hair follicle where it is released by a triggered signal and can then penetrate independently into the deeper skin layers through the follicular barrier. The improvement of these approaches will certainly be one of the main focuses of future research on follicular penetration.
KeywordsFollicular penetration Hair follicle Triggered release Infundibulum Particulate substances Transfollicular penetration
We would like to thank the Foundation “Skin Physiology” of the Donor Association for German Science and Humanities for financial support. Parts of this work were realized within the BMBF project “Topische Vakzinierung mit funktionalen Nanopartikeln.” The authors acknowledge that this work was supported by a grant funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, grant no, 13N9197). Furthermore, we thank Ulrich Schäfer and Claus-Michael Lehr (University of Saarbrücken) for providing particle preparations and Reinhardt Renneberg (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology) for providing the particles for the triggered release experiments.
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