Affect in Complex Decision-Making Systems: From Psychology to Computer Science Perspectives

  • Amine Chohra
  • Aziza Chohra
  • Kurosh Madani
Part of the IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series (IFIPAICT, volume 437)


The increasing progresses in both psychology and computer science allow continually to deal with more and more complex systems and closer to real-world applications in order to solve particularly the decision-making process with uncertain and incomplete information. The aim of this research work is to highlight the irrationality (affect) and to understand some different ways in which the irrationality enter into the decision-making from psychology and computer science perspectives. The goal is also to present some of such integrations of affect in decision-making which emerged in computer science particularly in negotiation and robotics. Thus, the role of the affect in decision-making is developed and discussed. Afterwards, an overview is given on the influence of the affect on an individual level emphasizing the idea that irrationality also has strong social components which can influence the interactions on a group (collective) level. Then, the Emotional Intelligence (EI) is discussed as a first step towards an attempt to answer to how to regulate/control the irrationality part for ‘positive’ decision-making, and consequently its effects on the though and action. Finally, some developments of computational models are presented. Open questions and challenges are discussed in conclusion, particularly the importance of the personality and its links to the affect.


Complex systems decision-making uncertain and incomplete information affect (emotions and moods) personality negotiation and robotics 


  1. 1.
    Andrade, E.B., Ariely, D.: The Enduring Impact of Transient Emotions on Decision-Making; Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 109, pp. 01–08. Elsevier (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Loewenstein, G., Lerner, J.S.: The Role of Affect in Decision-Making. In: Davidson, R.J., Scherer, K.R., Goldsmith, H.H. (eds.) Handbook of Affective Sciences, pp. 619–642. Oxford University Press (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Elster, J.: Alchemies of the Mind: Rationality and the Emotions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Damasio, A.R.: Descartes’ Error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. Putnam, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Darwin, C.: The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, New York (1998); Original Work Published in 1872 and Produced by Charles Keller and David WidgerGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pham, M.T.: Emotion and rationality: a critical review and interpretation of empirical evidence. Review of General Psychology, American Psychological Association 11(2), 155–178 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Seo, M.-G., Barrett, L.F.: Being emotional during decision making – good or bad? an empirical investigation. Academy of Management Journal 50(4), 923–940 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zeelenberg, M., Nelissen, R.M.A., Breugelmans, S.M., Pieters, R.: On emotion specificity in decision making: why feeling is for doing. Judgment and Decision Making 3(1), 18–27 (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Markic, O.: Rationality and emotions in decision-making. Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems 7(2), 54–64 (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lerner, J.S., Keltner, D.: Beyond valence: Toward a model of emotion-specific influences on judgement and choice. Cognition and Emotion 14(4), 473–493 (2000b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bodenhausen, G.V., Mussweiler, T., Gabriel, S., Moreno, K.N.: Affective influences on stereotyping and intergroup relations. In: Forgas, J.P. (ed.) Handbook of Affect and Social Cognition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Mahwah (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Forgas, J.P. (ed.): Handbook of Affect and Social Cognition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Mahwah (2001)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kahneman, D.: Experienced utility and objective happiness: A moment-based approach. In: Kahneman, D., Tversky, A. (eds.) Choices, Values, and Frames, pp. 673–692. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pfister, H.-R., Böhm, G.: The multiplicity of emotions: a framework of emotional functions in decision making. Judgment and Decision Making 3(1), 5–17 (2008)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kahneman, D., Tversky, A.: Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 47(2), 263–292 (1979)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Keeney, R.L.: Decision Analysis: An Overview. Operations Research 30(5), 803–838 (1982)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hammond, J.S., Keeney, R.L., Raiffa, H.: The Hidden Traps in Decision Making. Harvard Business Review, 01–11 (September-October 1998)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Raiffa, H.: Decision Analysis: a personal account of how it got started and evolved. Operations Research 50(1), 179–185 (2002)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Naqvi, N., Shiv, B., Bechara, A.: The role of emotion in decision-making: a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Association for Psychological Science 15(5), 260–264 (2006)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Niedenthal, P.M.: Embodying emotion. Science 316(5827), 1002–1005 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ahn, H.-I.: Modeling and Analysis of Affective Influences on Human Experience, Prediction, Decision Making, and Behavior. PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2010)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Velasquez, J.D.: An emotion-based approach to robotics. In: Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, vol. 1, pp. 235–240 (1999)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Velasquez, J.D.: When robots weep: emotional memories and decision-making. In: Proc. of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence (1998)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li, S., Roloff, M.E.: Strategic emotion in negotiation: cognition, emotion, and culture. In: Riva, G., Anguera, M.T., Wiederhold, B.K., Mantovani, F. (eds.) From Communication to Presence: Cognition, Emotions and Culture Towards the Ultimate Communicative Experience, pp. 169–188. IOS Press, Amsterdam (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chohra, A., Bahrammirzaee, A., Kanzari, D., Madani, K.: Personality aspects and fuzzy logic for bilateral negotiation behaviors with incomplete information. In: Lim, M.K. (ed.) Bidding: Types, Strategies and the Impact of Irrationality, ch. 12, pp. 251–276. Nova Science Publishers, New York (2013)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Treur, J.: From mirroring to the emergence of shared understanding and collective power. In: Jędrzejowicz, P., Nguyen, N.T., Hoang, K. (eds.) ICCCI 2011, Part I. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 6922, pp. 1–16. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Duell, R., Treur, J.: A Computational Analysis of Joint Decision Making Processes. In: Aberer, K., Flache, A., Jager, W., Liu, L., Tang, J., Guéret, C. (eds.) SocInfo 2012. LNCS, vol. 7710, pp. 292–308. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Becker-Asano, C., Wachsmuth, I.: Affect simulation with primary and secondary emotions. In: Prendinger, H., Lester, J.C., Ishizuka, M. (eds.) IVA 2008. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5208, pp. 15–28. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Salovey, P., Mayer, J.: Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality 9(3), 185–211 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P.: The intelligence of emotional intelligence. Intelligence 17, 433–442 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Elfenbein, H.A., Marsh, A.A., Ambady, N.: Emotional intelligence and the recognition of emotion from facial expressions. In: Barret, L.F., Salovey, P. (eds.) The Wisdom of Feelings: Processes Underlying Emotional Intelligence, pp. 01–019 (2003)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Barsade, S.G., Gibson, D.E.: Why does affect matter in organizations? In: Academy of Management of Perspectives, pp. 36–59 (February 2007)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rodriguez, L.-F., Ramos, F.: Development of computational models of emotions for autonomous agents: A review. Cognitive Computation (January 2014), doi:10.1007/s 12559-013-9244-xGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang, Y., Rodriguez, L.-F., Ramos, F.: Cognitive computational models of emotions and affective behaviors. Int. J. of Software Science and Computational Intelligence 4(2), 41–63 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gratch, J., Marsella, S.: Evaluating a computational model of emotion. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (2005)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ochsner, K.N., Gross, J.J.: The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9(5), 242–249 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Marsella, S., Gratch, J., Petta, P.: Computational models of emotion. In: Scherer, K.R., Banziger, T., Roesch, E. (eds.) A Blueprint for an Affectively Competent Agent: Cross-Fertilization Between Emotion, Psychology, Affective Neuroscience, and Affective Computing. Oxford University Press (2010)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lin, J., Spraragen, M., Blythe, J., Zyda, M.: EmoCog: computational integration of emotion and cognitive architecture. Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (2011)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lin, J., Spraragen, M., Zyda, M.: Computational models of emotion and cognition. Advances in Cognitive Systems 2, 59–76 (2012)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    McAdams, D.P.: The five-factor model in personality: a critical appraisal. Journal of Personality 60(2), 329–361 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chohra, A., Bahrammirzaee, A., Madani, K.: Time and personality based behaviors under cognitive approach to control the negotiation process with incomplete information. In: Nguyen, N.T. (ed.) Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence XII. LNCS, vol. 8240, pp. 69–88. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gmytrasiewicz, P.J., Lisetti, C.L.: Emotions and personality in agent design and modeling. In: Meyer, J.-J.C., Tambe, M. (eds.) Intelligent Agents VIII. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2333, pp. 21–31. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ahn, H.S.: Designing of a Personality Based Emotional Decision Model for Generating Various Emotional Behavior of Social Robots. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Article ID 630808, 01–14 (2014)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mohammad, Y., Nishida, T.: Modelling interaction dynamics during face-to-face interactions. In: Nishida, T., Jain, L.C., Faucher, C. (eds.) Modeling Machine Emotions for Realizing Intelligence. SIST, vol. 1, pp. 53–87. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Peters, E.: The functions of affect in the construction of preferences. In: Lichtenstein, S., Slovic, P. (eds.) The Construction of Preferences. Cambridge University Press, New York (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amine Chohra
    • 1
  • Aziza Chohra
    • 1
  • Kurosh Madani
    • 1
  1. 1.Images, Signals, and Intelligent System Laboratory (LISSI / EA 3956)Paris-East University (UPEC), Senart Institute of TechnologyLieusaintFrance

Personalised recommendations