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Placebo pp 17–35Cite as

Placebo, Nocebo, and Learning Mechanisms

Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP,volume 225)

Abstract

Recent substantial laboratory and theoretical research hints for different learning mechanisms regulating the formation of placebo and nocebo responses. Moreover, psychological and biological variants may play a role as modulators of learning mechanisms underlying placebo and nocebo responses. In this chapter, we present pioneering and recent human and nonhuman research that has impressively increased our knowledge of learning mechanisms in the context of placebo and nocebo effects across different physiological processes and pathological conditions.

Keywords

  • Conditioning
  • Expectation
  • Verbal suggestion
  • Observational learning
  • Drug-mimic effects
  • Vicarious hypoalgesia

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Acknowledgments

This research is supported by the Intramural Research Program of the Clinical Center, NIH, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).

Conflict of Interest There are no conflicts of interest.

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Correspondence to Luana Colloca .

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Colloca, L. (2014). Placebo, Nocebo, and Learning Mechanisms. In: Benedetti, F., Enck, P., Frisaldi, E., Schedlowski, M. (eds) Placebo. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, vol 225. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44519-8_2

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