Advertisement

Soft Robotics pp 120-133 | Cite as

Concepts of Softness for Legged Locomotion and Their Assessment

  • Andre Seyfarth
  • Katayon Radkhah
  • Oskar von Stryk
Conference paper

Abstract

In human and animal locomotion, compliant structures play an essential role in the body and actuator design. Recently, researchers have started to exploit these compliant mechanisms in robotic systems with the goal to achieve the yet superior motions and performances of the biological counterpart. For instance, compliant actuators such as series elastic actuators (SEA) can help to improve the energy efficiency and the required peak power in powered prostheses and exoskeletons. However, muscle function is also associated with damping-like characteristics complementing the elastic function of the tendons operating in series to the muscle fibers. Carefully designed conceptual as well as detailed motion dynamics models are key to understanding the purposes of softness, i.e. elasticity and damping, in human and animal locomotion and to transfer these insights to the design and control of novel legged robots. Results for the design of compliant legged systems based on a series of conceptual biomechanical models are summarized. We discuss how these models compare to experimental observations of human locomotion and how these models could be used to guide the design of legged robots and also how to systematically evaluate and compare natural and robotic legged motions.

Keywords

Human Walking Human Locomotion Legged Robot Legged Locomotion Animal Locomotion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Alexander RM (1976) Mechanics of bipedal locomotion. Perspectives in experimental biology, Oxford, UK Pergamon Press, pp 493–504Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Blickhan R (1989) The spring-mass model for running and hopping. Journal of Biome-chanics 22:1217–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Chung W, Fu LC, Hsu SH (2008) Motion Control. Chapter 6 of Springer Handbook of Robotics. Ed. by B. Siciliano, O. Khatib, pp 133–159Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Damsgaard M, Rasmussen J, Christensen ST, Surma E, de Zee M (2006) Analysis of musculoskeletal systems in the AnyBody modeling system. Simulation Modelling Prac-tice and Theory 14:1100–1111Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Delp SL, Anderson FC, Arnold AS, Loan P, Habib A, John CT, Guendelman E, Thelen DG (2007) OpenSim: Open-Source software to create and analyze dynamic simulations of movement. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 54(11):1940–1950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Desai R, Geyer H (2012) Robust swing leg placement under large disturbances. IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO) pp 265–270Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Endo K, Herr H (2009) A model of muscle-tendon function in human walking. IEEE In-ternational Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) pp 1909–1915Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Farley CT, Glasheen J, McMahon TA (1993) Running springs: speed and animal size. Journal of Experimental Biology 185(1):71–86Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Farley CT, Gonzalez O (1996) Leg stiffness and stride frequency in human running. Journal of biomechanics, 29(2), 181–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Farley CT, Morgenroth DC (1999) Leg stiffness primarily depends on ankle stiffness dur-ing human hopping. Journal of biomechanics, 32(3):267–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Full R, Koditschek D (1999) Templates and anchors: neuromechanical hypotheses of legged locomotion on land. Journal of Experimental Biology 202:3325–3332Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Geyer H, Seyfarth A, Blickhan R (2003) Positive force feedback in bouncing gaits?. Pro-ceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 270(1529):2173–2183Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Haeufle DFB, Grimmer S, Seyfarth A (2010) The role of intrinsic muscle properties for stable hopping—stability is achieved by the force-velocity relation. Bioinspiration and Biomimetics 5(1):016004Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Haeufle DFB, Grimmer S, Kalveram KT, Seyfarth A (2012) Integration of intrinsic mus-cle properties, feed-forward and feedback signals for generating and stabilizing hopping. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 9(72):1458–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Herr HM, McMahon TA (2000) A trotting horse model. The International Journal of Ro-botics Research 19(6):566–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Herr HM, Huang GT, McMahon TA (2002) A model of scale effects in mammalian quadrupedal running. Journal of Experimental Biology 205(7):959–967Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Kajita, S., Espiau, B. (2008) Legged Robots. Chapter 16 of Springer Handbook of Robot-ics. Ed. by B. Siciliano, O. Khatib, pp 361–389Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Kubo K, Kanehisa H, Takeshita D, Kawakami Y, Fukashiro S, Fukunaga T (2000) In vi-vo dynamics of human medial gastrocnemius muscle‐tendon complex during stretch‐shortening cycle exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 170(2):127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Lens T, Radkhah K, von Stryk O (2011) Simulation of dynamics and realistic contact forces for manipulators and legged robots with high joint elasticity. International Confer-ence on Advanced Robotics (ICAR) pp 34–41Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Lipfert SW, Günther M, Renjewski D, Grimmer S, Seyfarth A (2012) A model-experiment comparison of system dynamics for human walking and running. Journal of Theoretical Biology 292:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Maus H M, Lipfert SW, Gross M, Rummel J, Seyfarth A (2010) Upright human gait did not provide a major mechanical challenge for our ancestors. Nature Communications 1:70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    McMahon TA, Cheng GC (1990) The mechanics of running: how does stiffness couple with speed?. Journal of Biomechanics 23:65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Radkhah K (2013) Advancing Musculoskeletal Robot Design for Dynamic and Energy-Efficient Bipedal Locomotion. PhD Thesis, TU Darmstadt, CS Dept.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Radkhah K, Lens T, von Stryk O (2012) Detailed dynamics modeling of BioBiped’s monoarticular and biarticular tendon-driven actuation system. IEEE/RSJ Intl. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) pp 4243–4250Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Radkhah K, von Stryk O (2013) Exploring the Lombard paradox in a bipedal musculo-skeletal robot. International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Sup-port Technologies for Mobile Machines (CLAWAR) pp 537–546Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Radkhah K, von Stryk O (2014) A study of the passive rebound behavior of bipedal ro-bots with stiff and different types of elastic actuation. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) pp 5095–5102Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Rode C, Seyfarth A (2013) Balance control is simplified by musculoskeletal leg design. Dynamic Walking conferenceGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Scheinman V, McCarthy JM (2008) Mechanisms and Actuation. Chapter 3 of Springer Handbook of Robotics. Ed. by B. Siciliano, O. Khatib, pp 67–86Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Seyfarth A, Friedrichs A, Wank V, Blickhan R (1999) Dynamics of the long jump. Jour-nal of Biomechanics 32(12):1259–1267Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Seyfarth A, Blickhan R, Van Leeuwen JL (2000) Optimum take-off techniques and mus-cle design for long jump. Journal of Experimental Biology 203(4):741–750Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Seyfarth A, Grimmer S, Häufle D, Kalveram KT (2012) Can robots help to understand human locomotion? at - Automatisierungstechnik 60(11):653–660Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Song H, Park H, Park S (2014) Swing leg kinetics can be described by springy-pendulum in human walking, Dynamic Walking conferenceGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Sreenath K, Park HW, Poulakakis I, Grizzle JW (2011) A compliant hybrid zero dynam-ics controller for stable, efficient and fast bipedal walking on MABEL. The International Journal of Robotics Research 30(9):1170–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Villani L, De Schutter J (2008) Force Control. Chapter 7 of Springer Handbook of Robot-ics. Ed. by B. Siciliano, O. Khatib, pp 161–185Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Wiemann K, Tidow G (1995) Relative activity of hip and knee extensors in sprinting—implications for training. New studies in Athletics 1 10(29–49)Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Loram, I.D., Maganaris, C.N., Lakie, M. (2004) Paradoxical muscle movement in human standing. The Journal of Physiology, vol. 556, pp 683–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Vanderborght, B. et al. (2013) Variable impedance actuators: A review. Robotics and Au-tonomous Systems, vol. 61, pp 1601–1614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Moro, F.L., Tsagarakis, N.G., Caldwell, D.G. (2014) Walking in the resonance with the COMAN robot with trajectories based on human kinematic motion primitives (kMPs). Autonomous Robots, vol. 36, no. 4, pp 331–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Radkhah, K., Maufroy, C., Maus, M., Scholz, D., Seyfarth, A., von Stryk, O. (2011) Concept and design of the BioBiped1 robot for human-like walking and running. Interna-tional Journal of Humanoid Robotics, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 439–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andre Seyfarth
    • 1
  • Katayon Radkhah
    • 1
  • Oskar von Stryk
    • 1
  1. 1.Technische Universität DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany

Personalised recommendations