Autoimmune Skin Diseases: Role of Sex Hormones, Vitamin D, and Menopause
- DeLisa FairweatherAffiliated withDepartment of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Email author
Autoimmune diseases that affect the skin occur predominantly in women and are classified as rheumatic diseases. They include systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, Sjögren’s syndrome, and scleroderma. Data support the idea that estrogen elevates autoantibodies and T helper 2 responses and promotes fibrosis by stimulating profibrotic interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor-β and fibroblast growth factor, all of which contribute to increased skin inflammation in rheumatic diseases in women. Epidemiological data indicate that more than 60 % of postmenopausal women have vitamin D insufficiency and 16 % are vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D deficiency is far more common among women with rheumatic diseases than controls and is associated with worse disease severity and cutaneous manifestations. This chapter describes our current understanding of the role of sex hormones, vitamin D, and the effect of menopause on the development of autoimmune skin diseases.
- Autoimmune Skin Diseases: Role of Sex Hormones, Vitamin D, and Menopause
- Book Title
- Skin, Mucosa and Menopause
- Book Subtitle
- Management of Clinical Issues
- Book Part
- Part IV
- pp 359-381
- Print ISBN
- Online ISBN
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
- Copyright Holder
- Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- eBook Packages
- Editor Affiliations
- 1. Procter & Gamble Co.
- 2. Procter & Gamble Co.
- 3. School of Nursing, University of Washington
- 4. Department of Dermatology, University of California School of Medicine
- Author Affiliations
- 5. Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA
To view the rest of this content please follow the download PDF link above.