Mechanics of Titanium Machining

  • Ismail LazogluEmail author
  • S. Ehsan Layegh Khavidaki
  • Ali Mamedov
Part of the Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology book series (MFMT)


Titanium is widely used material in advanced industrial applications such as in aeronautics and power generation systems because of the distinguished properties such as high strength and corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. On the other hand, the machinability of this material is poor. Relatively low thermal conductivity of Titanium contributes to rapid tool wear, and as a result, high amounts of consumable costs occur in production. Therefore, understanding the mechanics of titanium machining via mathematical modeling and using the models in process optimization are very important when machining Titanium both in macro and micro scales. In this chapter, mechanical effect of process parameters in five axis milling and micro milling are analyzed. Thus, different cutting conditions were tested in dry conditions and the effects of tool orientation on cutting forces in five axis macro milling was investigated. For five-axis ball end milling operation, a series of experiments with constant removal rate and different tool orientation (different lead and tilt angle) were conducted to investigate the effect of tool orientation on cutting forces. The aim of the tests was finding the optimum orientation of the cutter in which the normal cutting force applying on machined surface is minimum. Moreover, a new method to predict cutting forces for micro ball end mill is presented. The model is validated through sets of experiments for different engagement angles. The experiment and the simulation indicated that the tool orientation has a critical effect on the resultant cutting force and the component that is normal to the machined surface. It also possible to predict the tool orientation in which the cutting torque and dissipated energy is minimum. In micro milling case, the force model for ball end mill is able to estimate the cutting forces for different cutting conditions with an acceptable accuracy.


Tool Wear Tilt Angle Chip Thickness Cutting Force Uncut Chip Thickness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Ezugwu EO (2005) Key improvements in the machining of difficult-to-cut aerospace superalloys. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45(12–13):1353–1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    López de lacalle LN, Pérez J, Llorente JI, Sánchez JA (2000) Advanced cutting conditions for the milling of aeronautical alloys. J Mater Process Technol 100(1–3):1–11Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sun S, Brandt M, Dargusch MS (2009) Characteristics of cutting forces and chip formation in machining of Titanium alloys. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49(7–8):561–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jaffery SI, Mativenga PT (2009) Assessment of the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using the wear map approach. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 40(7–8):687–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Costes JP, Guillet Y, Poulachon G, Dessoly M (2007) Tool-life and wear mechanisms of CBN tools in machining of Inconel 718. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 47(7–8):1081–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li HZ, Zeng H, Chen XQ (2006) An experimental study of tool wear and cutting force variation in the end milling of Inconel 718 with coated carbide inserts. J Mater Process Technol 180(1–3):296–304Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liao YS, Lin HM, Wang JH (2008) Behaviors of end milling Inconel 718 superalloy by cemented carbide tools. J Mater Process Technol 201(1–3):460–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rahman M, Seah WKH, Teo TT (1997) The machinability of Inconel 718. J Mater Process Technol 63(1):199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Devillez A, Schneider F, Dominiak S, Dudzinski D, Larrouquere D (2007) Cutting forces and wear in dry machining of Inconel 718 with coated carbide tools. Wear 262(7–8):931–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Amin AKM, Ismail AF, Nor Khairusshima MK (2007) Effectiveness of uncoated WC–Co and PCD inserts in end milling of titanium alloy—Ti–6Al–4V. J Mater Process Technol 192:147–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arrazola P-J, Garay A, Iriarte L-M, Armendia M, Marya S, Le Maître F (2009) Machinability of titanium alloys (Ti6Al4V and Ti555.3). J Mater Process Technol 209(5):2223–2230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fang N, Wu Q (2009) A comparative study of the cutting forces in high speed machining of Ti–6Al–4V and Inconel 718 with a round cutting edge tool. J Mater Process Technol 209(9):4385–4389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pawade RS, Joshi SS, Brahmankar PK, Rahman M (2007) An investigation of cutting forces and surface damage in high-speed turning of Inconel 718. J Mater Process Technol 192–193:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kitagawa T, Kubo A, Maekawa K (1997) Temperature and wear of cutting tools in high-speed machining of Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-6 V-2Sn. Wear 202(2):142–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thakur DG, Ramamoorthy B, Vijayaraghavan L (2009) Study on the machinability characteristics of superalloy Inconel 718 during high speed turning. Mater Des 30(5):1718–1725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    MacGinley T, Monaghan J (2001) Modelling the orthogonal machining process using coated cemented carbide cutting tools. J Mater Process Technol 118(1–3):293–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cotterell M, Byrne G (2008) Dynamics of chip formation during orthogonal cuttingorthogonal cutting of titanium alloy Ti–6Al–4V. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 57(1):93–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ng E-G, Lee DW, Sharman ARC, Dewes RC, Aspinwall DK, Vigneau J (2000) High speed ball nose end milling of Inconel 718. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 49(1):41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mhamdi M-B, Boujelbene M, Bayraktar E, Zghal A (2012) Surface integrity of Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V in ball end milling. Phys Procedia 25:355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sonawane HA, Joshi SS (2012) Analysis of machined surface quality in a single-pass of ball-end milling on Inconel 718. J Manuf Process 14(3):257–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Corduan N, Himbet T (2003) Wear mechanisms of new tool materials for TiBAI4V high perfonnance machining. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 51(1):73–76Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Aramcharoen A, Mativenga P, Yang S, Cooke K, Teer D (2008) Evaluation and selection of hard coatings for micro milling of hardened tool steel. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 48(14):1578–1584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Özel T, Sima M, Srivastava AK, Kaftanoglu B (2010) Investigations on the effects of multi-layered coated inserts in machining Ti–6Al–4V alloy with experiments and finite element simulations. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 59(1):77–82Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Thepsonthi T, Özel T (2013) Experimental and finite element simulation based investigations on micro-milling Ti-6Al-4V Titanium alloy: effects of cBN coating on tool wear. J Mater Process Technol 213(4):532–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vogler M, Kapoor S, DeVor R (2004) On the modeling and analysis of machining performance in micro-end milling, Part II: cutting force prediction. Trans ASME J Manuf Sci Eng 126(4):695–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Waldorf DJ, DeVor R, Kapoor S (1998) Slip-Line field for ploughing during orthogonal cuttingorthogonal cutting. Trans ASME J Manuf Sci Eng 120(4):693–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jun MBG, Liu X, DeVor RE, Kapoor SG (2006) Investigation of the dynamics of microend milling—part I: model development. J Manuf Sci Eng 128(4):893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fang N (2003) Slip-line modeling of machining with a rounded-edge tool—Part I: new model and theory. J Mech Phys Solids 51(4):715–742CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fang N, Jawahir IS (2002) An analytical predictive model and experimental validation for machining with grooved tools incorporating the effects of strains, strain-rates, and temperatures. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 51(1):83–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rodríguez P, Labarga JE (2013) A new model for the prediction of cutting forces in micro-end-milling operations. J Mater Process Technol 213:261–268Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jin X, Altintas Y (2011) Slip-line field model of micro-cutting process with round tool edge effect. J Mater Process Technol 211(3):339–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Park SS, Malekian M (2009) CIRP annals—manufacturing technology mechanistic modeling and accurate measurement of micro end milling forces. Micro 58:49–52Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li C, Lai X, Li H, Ni J (2007) Modeling of three-dimensional cutting forces in micro-end-milling. J Micromech Microeng 17(4):671–678Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Altintas Y (2012) Manufacturing automation: metal cutting mechanics, machine tool vibrations, and CNC design. Cambridge university press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Merchant ME (1944) Basic mechanics of the metal cutting process. J Appl Mech 11(A):168–175Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Layegh SEK, Erdim H, Lazoglu I (2012) Offline force control and feedrate scheduling for complex free form surfaces in 5-axis milling. Procedia CIRP 1:96–101Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gradišek J, Kalveram M, Weinert K (2004) Mechanistic identification of specific force coefficients for a general end mill. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 44(4):401–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Martellotti M (1941) An analysis of milling process. Trans ASME J Manuf Sci Eng 63:677–700Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bao W (2000) Modeling micro-end-milling operations. Part I: analytical cutting force model. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 40(15):2155–2173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kang YH, Zheng CM (2013) Mathematical modelling of chip thickness in micro-end-milling: a Fourier modelling. Appl Math Model 37(6):4208–4223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lazoglu I, Boz Y, Erdim H (2011) Five-axis milling mechanics for complex free form surfaces. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 60(1):117–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ismail Lazoglu
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Ehsan Layegh Khavidaki
    • 1
  • Ali Mamedov
    • 1
  1. 1.Manufacturing and Automation Research CenterKoc UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations