Cutting Tool Materials and Tool Wear

  • Ali Hosseini
  • Hossam A. KishawyEmail author
Part of the Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology book series (MFMT)


The chip formation in machining operations is commonly accomplished by a combination of several elements working together to complete the job. Among these components, cutting tool is the key element that serves in the front line of cutting action. Cutting action becomes a challenge when it comes to machining difficult-to-cut materials. Titanium and its alloys are among the most difficult-to-cut materials which are widely used in diverse industrial sectors. This chapter aims to provide a historical background and application of different cutting tools in machining industry with a main focus on the applicable cutting tools in machining titanium and titanium alloys. Selection of appropriate tool material for a certain application is directly influenced by the characteristics of material to be machined. In this context, a brief overview of the metallurgy of titanium and its alloys is also presented. Recent progresses in tool materials, appropriate tools for cutting titanium alloys, and their dominant wear mechanisms will also be covered in this chapter.


Boron Nitride Cutting Tool Titanium Carbide Tool Material High Speed Steel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Britannica E (2001) Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia BritannicaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gerdemann SJ (2001) Titanium process technologies. Adv Mater Process 159(DOE/ARC-2002-007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jackson M, Dring K (2006) A review of advances in processing and metallurgy of titanium alloys. Mater Sci Technol 22(8):881–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    McQuillan AD, McQuillan MK (1956) Titanium, vol 4. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Habashi F (1997) Handbook of extractive metallurgy, vol 2. Wiley-Vch, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ezugwu E, Wang Z (1997) Titanium alloys and their machinability—a review. J Mater Process Technol 68(3):262–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Joshi VA (2006) Titanium alloys: an atlas of structures and fracture features.CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yang X, Liu CR (1999) Machining titanium and its alloys. Mach Sci Technol 3(1):107–139Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Voskoboinikov R, Lumpkin G, Middleburgh S (2013) Preferential formation of Al self-interstitial defects in γ-TiAl under irradiation. Intermetallics 32:230–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Groover MP (2007) Fundamentals of modern manufacturing: materials processes, and systems.John Wiley & Sons, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Astakhov VP, Xiao X (2008) A methodology for practical cutting force evaluation based on the energy spent in the cutting system. Mach Sci Technol 12(3):325–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Astakhov VP (2006) Tribology of metal cutting, vol 52.Accessed Online via ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Outeiro J (2003) Application of recent metal cutting approaches to the study of the machining residual stresses. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Coimbra p 340Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Child H, Dalton A (1968) ISI special report 94. LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Konig W (1978) Applied research on the machinability of titanium and its alloys. In: Proceedings of AGARD conference advanced fabrication processes, FlorenceGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fitzsimmons M, Sarin VK (2001) Development of CVD WC–co coatings. Surf Coat Technol 137(2):158–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pramanik A (2014) Problems and solutions in machining of titanium alloys. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 70(5–8):919–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    He G, Zhang Y (1985) Experimental investigations of the surface integrity of broached titanium alloy. CIRP Ann-Manuf Technol 34(1):491–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Donachie Jr M (1982) Introduction to titanium and titanium alloys. American Society for Metals, Titanium and Titanium Alloys Source Book, p 7Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barry J, Byrne G, Lennon D (2001) Observations on chip formation and acoustic emission in machining Ti–6Al–4 V alloy. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 41(7):1055–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Komanduri R, Von Turkovich B (1981) New observations on the mechanism of chip formation when machining titanium alloys. Wear 69(2):179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vyas A, Shaw M (1999) Mechanics of saw-tooth chip formation in metal cutting. J Manuf Sci Eng 121(2):163–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sun S, Brandt M, Dargusch M (2009) Characteristics of cutting forces and chip formation in machining of titanium alloys. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49(7):561–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Komanduri R, Hou Z-B (2002) On thermoplastic shear instability in the machining of a titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Metall Mater Trans A 33(9):2995–3010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Machado A, Wallbank J (1990) Machining of titanium and its alloys—a review. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 204(1):53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Siekmann HJ (1955) How to machine titanium. Tool Eng 34(1):78–82Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stoughton B (1908) The metallurgy of iron and steel. McGraw-Hill publishing company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Oberg E, Jones FD (1918) Iron and steel: a treatise on the smelting, refining, and mechanical processes of the iron and steel industry, including the chemical and physical characteristics of wrought iron, carbon, high-speed and alloy steels, cast iron, and steel castings, and the application of these materials in the machine and tool construction. The Industrial Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
    Davim JP (2008) Machining: fundamentals and recent advances. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Davim JP (2011) Machining of hard materials. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Whitney ED (1994) Ceramic cutting tools. William Andrew Pub, NorwichGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kramer B (1987) On tool materials for high speed machining. J Eng Ind 109(2):87–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ezugwu E, Bonney J, Yamane Y (2003) An overview of the machinability of aeroengine alloys. J Mater Process Technol 134(2):233–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rahman M, Wang Z-G, Wong Y-S (2006) A review on high-speed machining of titanium alloys. JSME Int J, Series C 49(1):11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pérez J, Llorente J, Sánchez J (2000) Advanced cutting conditions for the milling of aeronautical alloys. J Mater Process Technol 100(1):1–11Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hartung PD, Kramer B, Von Turkovich B (1982) Tool wear in titanium machining. CIRP Annal Manuf Technol 31(1):75–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Trent EM, Wright PK (2000) Metal cutting. Butterworth-Heinemann, BostonGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Upadhyaya G (1998) Cemented tungsten carbides: production, properties and testing. William AndrewGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Che-Haron C (2001) Tool life and surface integrity in turning titanium alloy. J Mater Process Technol 118(1):231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dearnley P, Grearson A (1986) Evaluation of principal wear mechanisms of cemented carbides and ceramics used for machining titanium alloy IMI 318. Mater Sci Technol 2(1):47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Narutaki N et al (1983) Study on machining of titanium alloys. CIRP Annal Manuf Technol 32(1):65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sadik MI, Lindström B (1995) The effect of restricted contact length on tool performance. J Mater Process Technol 48(1):275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Edwards R, Edwards R (1993) Cutting tools. Institute of Materials, LondonGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rahman M, Wong YS, Zareena AR (2003) Machinability of titanium alloys. JSME Int J Series C 46:107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chakraborty A, Ray K, Bhaduri S (2000) Comparative wear behavior of ceramic and carbide tools during high speed machining of steel. Mater Manuf Process 15(2):269–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Klocke F (2011) Manufacturing processes. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lin Z-C, Chen D-Y (1995) A study of cutting with a CBN tool. J Mater Process Technol 49(1):149–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zoya Z, Krishnamurthy R (2000) The performance of CBN tools in the machining of titanium alloys. J Mater Process Technol 100(1):80–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ezugwu E et al (2005) Evaluation of the performance of CBN tools when turning Ti–6Al–4V alloy with high pressure coolant supplies. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45(9):1009–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nabhani F (2001) Machining of aerospace titanium alloys. Robot Comput Integr Manuf 17(1):99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kuljanic E et al (1998) Milling titanium compressor blades with PCD cutter. CIRP Annal Manuf Technol 47(1):61–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Machining Research Laboratory (MRL), Faculty of Engineering and Applied ScienceUniversity of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT)OshawaCanada

Personalised recommendations