Skip to main content

Design Patterns for Engineering the Ontology-Lexicon Interface

Abstract

In this paper, we combine two ideas: one is the recently identified need to extend ontologies with a richer lexical layer, and the other is the use of ontology design patterns for ontology engineering. We combine both to develop the first set of design patterns for ontology-lexica, using the ontology-lexicon model, lemon. We show how these patterns can be used to model nouns, verbs and adjectives and what implications these patterns impose on both the lexicon and the ontology. We implemented these patterns by means of a domain-specific language that can generate the patterns from a short description, which can significantly reduce the effort in developing ontology-lexica. We exemplify this with the use case of constructing a lexicon for the DBpedia ontology.

Key Words

  • Design patterns
  • Lexicon
  • Ontology
  • Ontology engineering
  • Ontology-lexica

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-43585-4_2
  • Chapter length: 16 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-662-43585-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   149.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Notes

  1. 1.

    For a complete list, see http://lemon-model.net/.

  2. 2.

    Note that properties may consist of chains of properties, giving multiple unbound arguments. In this case, OWL 2 property chains should be used to reduce to one unbound argument.

  3. 3.

    Depending on whether the argument of the noun is a prepositional object, as in “marriage with someone”, or also allows for a possessive construction, as in “a country’s capital”, the syntactic frame is specified either as NounPPFrame or as NounPossessiveFrame.

  4. 4.

    The oils name space is http://lemon-model.net/oils#.

  5. 5.

    For example, the state of being larger is atemporal for natural numbers but temporal for the height of children.

  6. 6.

    Of course, handling the non-monotonic natural of language would be desirable; however, the introduction of non-monotonicity should occur at the ontology level, by means of extensions to the OWL language.

  7. 7.

    In WALS this constitutes only 13 % of languages documented (Stassen 2011); however, as this includes the Romance and Germanic language families, we found this to be especially useful.

References

  • Baader, F. (2003). The description logic handbook: Theory, implementation, and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bizer, C., Lehmann, J., Kobilarov, G., Auer, S., Becker, C., Cyganiak, R., et al. (2009). DBpedia-A crystallization point for the Web of data. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web, 7(3), 154–165.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bouillon, P., & Viegas, E. (1999). The description of adjectives for natural language processing: Theoretical and applied perspectives. In Proceedings of Description des Adjectifs pour les Traitements Informatiques. Traitement Automatique des Langues Naturelles (pp. 20–30).

    Google Scholar 

  • Buitelaar, P. (2010). Ontology-based semantic lexicons: Mapping between terms and object descriptions. In Ontology and the Lexicon (pp. 212–223). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Buitelaar, P., Cimiano, P., Haase, P., & Sintek, M. (2009). Towards linguistically grounded ontologies. In The Semantic Web: Research and applications (pp. 111–125). Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Buitelaar, P., Olejnik, D., & Sintek, M. (2004). A Protégé plug-in for ontology extraction from text based on linguistic analysis. In The Semantic Web: Research and applications (pp. 31–44). Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cimiano, P., Buitelaar, P., McCrae, J., & Sintek, M. (2011). LexInfo: A declarative model for the lexicon-ontology interface. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web, 9(1), 29–51.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cimiano, P., McCrae, J., Buitelaar, P., & Montiel-Ponsoda, E. (2013). On the role of senses in the ontology-lexicon. In New trends of research in ontologies and Lexical resources (pp. 7–25). Heidelberg: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Comrie, B. (1976). Aspect: An introduction to the study of verbal aspect and related problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davidson, D. (1967). The logical form of action sentences. In N. Rescher (Ed.), The logic of decision and action (pp. 81–95). Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Melo, G., & Weikum, G. (2008). Language as a foundation of the Semantic Web. In Proceedings of the 7th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2008) (Vol. 401).

    Google Scholar 

  • Debusmann, R., Duchier, D., Koller, A., Kuhlmann, M., Smolka, G., & Thater, S. (2004). A relational syntax-semantics interface based on dependency grammar. In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (pp. 176–182).

    Google Scholar 

  • Egg, M., Koller, A., & Niehren, J. (2001). The constraint language for lambda structures. Journal of Logic, Language and Information, 10(4), 457–485.

    CrossRef  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Farrar, S., & Langendoen, D. T. (2003). A linguistic ontology for the semantic web. GLOT International, 7(3), 97–100.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fellbaum, C. (2010). WordNet. Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Forsberg, M., & Ranta, A. (2003). The BNF converter: A high-level tool for implementing well-behaved programming languages. In NWPT’02 Proceedings, Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences (pp. 1–16).

    Google Scholar 

  • Fowler, M., & Parsons, R. (2010). Domain-specific languages. Upper Saddle River: Addison-Wesley Professional.

    Google Scholar 

  • Francopoulo, G., George, M., Calzolari, N., Monachini, M., Bel, N., Pet, M., et al. (2006). Lexical markup framework (LMF). In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (pp. 233–236).

    Google Scholar 

  • Gangemi, A., Guarino, N., Masolo, C., Oltramari, A., & Schneider, L. (2002). Sweetening ontologies with DOLCE. In Knowledge engineering and knowledge management: Ontologies and the Semantic Web (pp. 166–181). Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gangemi, A., Navigli, R., & Velardi, P. (2003). The OntoWordNet project: Extension and axiomatization of conceptual relations in WordNet. In On the move to meaningful Internet systems 2003 (pp. 820–838). Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gangemi, A., & Presutti, V. (2009). Ontology design patterns. In Handbook on ontologies (pp. 221–243). Berlin: Springer.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gruber, T. R. (1995). Toward principles for the design of ontologies used for knowledge sharing. International Journal of Human Computer Studies,43(5), 907–928.

    Google Scholar 

  • Halle, B., & Ronald, G. (2001). Business rules applied: Building better systems using the business rules approach. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horrocks, I., Patel-Schneider, P. F., & Van Harmelen, F. (2003). From SHIQ and RDF to OWL: The making of a web ontology language. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web, 1(1), 7–26.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ide, N., & Romary, L. (2006). Representing linguistic corpora and their annotations. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (pp. 3205–3212).

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan, F., Frontini, F., Grata, R. D., Monachini, M., & Quochi, V. (2013). Generative lexicon theory and linguistic linked open data. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Generative Approaches to the Lexicon (pp. 62–69).

    Google Scholar 

  • Lefrançois, M., & Gandon, F. (2011). ULiS: An expert system on linguistics to support multilingual management of interlingual knowledge bases. In 9th International Conference on Terminology and Artificial Intelligence (p. 108).

    Google Scholar 

  • McCrae, J., Aguado-de Cea, G., Buitelaar, P., Cimiano, P., Declerck, T., Gomez-Perez, A., et al. (2012a). Interchanging lexical resources on the Semantic Web. Language Resources and Evaluation, 46(4), 701–719.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McCrae, J., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., & Cimiano, P. (2012b). Collaborative semantic editing of linked data lexica. In Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Language Resource and Evaluation (pp. 2619–2625).

    Google Scholar 

  • McGuinness, D., & Van Harmelen, F. (2004). OWL web ontology language overview. W3C Recommendation, 10, 2004–03. http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-features/

  • Mel’Cuk, I. (1981). Meaning-text models: A recent trend in Soviet linguistics. Annual Review of Anthropology, 10, 27–62.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Aguado de Cea, G., Gómez-Pérez, A., & Peters, W. (2008). Modelling multilinguality in ontologies. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (pp. 67–70).

    Google Scholar 

  • Nirenburg, S., Beale, S., Mahesh, K., Onyshkevych, B., Raskin, V., Viegas, E., et al. (1996). Lexicons in the Mikrokosmos project. In Proceedings of the Society for Artificial Intelligence and Simulated Behavior Workshop on Multilinguality in the Lexicon (pp. 26–33).

    Google Scholar 

  • Oltramari, A., Vetere, G., Lenzerini, M., Gangemi, A., & Guarino, N. (2010). Senso comune. In Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on International Language Resources and Evaluation (pp. 3873–3877).

    Google Scholar 

  • Presutti, V., Daga, E., Gangemi, A., & Blomqvist, E. (2009). eXtreme design with content ontology design patterns. In Workshop on Ontology Patterns (p. 83).

    Google Scholar 

  • Prévot, L., Huang, C., Calzolari, N., Gangemi, A., Lenci, A., & Oltramari, A. (2010). Ontology and the lexicon: A multi-disciplinary perspective. In Ontology and the Lexicon: A natural language processing perspective (pp. 3–24). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pustejovsky, J. (1991). The generative lexicon. Computational Linguistics, 17(4), 409–441.

    Google Scholar 

  • Raskin, V., & Nirenburg, S. (1995). Lexical semantics of adjectives. New Mexico State University, Computing Research Laboratory Technical Report, MCCS-95-288.

    Google Scholar 

  • Raskin, V., & Nirenburg, S. (1998). An applied ontological semantic microtheory of adjective meaning for natural language processing. Machine Translation, 13(2), 135–227.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reymonet, A., Thomas, J., & Aussenac-Gilles, N. (2007). Modelling ontological and terminological resources in OWL DL. In Proceedings of OntoLex07 Workshop at the 6th International Semantic Web Conference.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stassen, L. (2011). Comparative constructions. In M. Dryer & M. Haspelmath (Eds.), The world atlas of language structures online (Chap. 121). Available online at http://wals.info/chapter/121.

  • Tappolet, J., & Bernstein, A. (2009). Applied temporal RDF: Efficient temporal querying of RDF data with SPARQL. In The Semantic Web: Research and applications (pp. 308–322). Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Unger, C., Hieber, F., & Cimiano, P. (2010). Generating LTAG grammars from a lexicon-ontology interface. In Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammars and Related Formalisms (TAG+10) (pp. 61–68).

    Google Scholar 

  • Unger, C., McCrae, J., Walter, S., Winter, S., & Cimiano, P. (2013). A lemon lexicon for DBpedia. In Proceedings of the NLP+DBpedia Workshop Co-located with the 12th International Semantic Web Conference.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vendler, Z. (1957). Verbs and times. In The philosophical review, 66(2), 143–160.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wampler, D., & Payne, A. (2008). Programming Scala (Chap. 11). Sebastopol: O’Reilly.

    Google Scholar 

  • Windhouwer, M. (2012). RELcat: A relation registry for ISOcat data categories. In Proceedings of the Eight International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (pp. 3661–3664).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Christina Unger .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

McCrae, J.P., Unger, C. (2014). Design Patterns for Engineering the Ontology-Lexicon Interface. In: Buitelaar, P., Cimiano, P. (eds) Towards the Multilingual Semantic Web. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-43585-4_2

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-43585-4_2

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-662-43584-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-662-43585-4

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)