Advertisement

Sexualhormone

  • Ulrich Schwabe

Zusammenfassung

Die wichtigsten Gruppen der Sexualhormone sind Östrogenpräparate und Kontrazeptiva. Danach folgen mit weitem Abstand Androgene, Antiandrogene und Gestagene.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2013) Committee opinion no. 556: Postmenopausal estrogen therapy: route of administration and risk of venous thromboembolism. Obstet Gynecol 121:887–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arzneimittelkommission der deutschen Ärzteschaft (2003): Rote H and Brief zur Hormontherapie im Klimakterium vom 09.12.2003. Im Internet: www.akdae.de/20/40/index.html.
  3. Arzneimittelkommission der deutschen Ärzteschaft (2011) Risiko von venösen Thromboembolien bei Einnahme von Drospirenon-haltigen kombinierten oralen Kontrazeptiva (Yasmin®/Yasminelle®, Aida®, Yaz®, Petibelle®). Dtsch Ärztebl 108:A244–2Google Scholar
  4. Biglia N, Carinelli S, Maiorana A, D’Alonzo M, Lo Monte G, Marci R (2014) Ulipristal acetate: a novel pharmacological approach for the treatment of uterine fibroids. Drug Des Devel Ther 8:285–292PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Canonico M, Oger E, Plu-Bureau G, Conard J, Meyer G, Lévesque H, Trillot N, Barrellier MT, Wahl D, Emmerich J, Scarabin PY; Estrogen and Thromboembolism Risk (ESTHER) Study Group (2007) Hormone therapy and venous thromboembolism among postmenopausal women: impact of the route of estrogen administration and progestogens: the ESTHER study. Circulation 115:840–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cauley JA, Seeley DG, Ensrud K, Ettinger B, Black D, Cummings SR (1995) Estrogen replacement therapy and fractures in older women. Ann Intern Med 122:9–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng L, Gulmezoglu AM, Oel CJ, Piaggio G, Ezcurra E, Look PF (2004) Interventions for emergency contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004(3):CD00132–4Google Scholar
  8. Chlebowski RT, Anderson GL, Gass M, Lane DS, Aragaki AK, Kuller LH, Manson JE, Stefanick ML, Ockene J, Sarto GE, Johnson KC, Wactawski-Wende J, Ravdin PM, Schenken R, Hendrix SL, Rajkovic A, Rohan TE, Yasmeen S, Prentice RL; WHI Investigators (2010) Estrogen plus progestin and breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women. JAMA 304:1684–1692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cogliano V, Grosse Y, Baan R, Straif K, Secretan B, El Ghissassi F; WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (2005) Carcinogenicity of combined oestrogen-progestagen contraceptives and menopausal treatment. Lancet Oncol 6:552–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Collaborative Study Group on the Desogestrel-containing Progesteron-only Pill (1998) A double blind study comparing the contraceptive efficacy, acceptability and safety of two progesteron-only pills containing desogestrel 75 micrograms/day or levonorgestrel 30 micrograms/day. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 3:169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Creinin MD, Schlaff W, Archer DF, Wan L, Frezieres R, Thomas M, Rosenberg M, Higgins J (2006) Progesterone receptor modulator for emergency contraception: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 108:1089–1097PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dinger JC, Heinemann LA, Kuhl-Habich D (2007) The safety of a drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive: final results from the European Active Surveillance Study on oral contraceptives based on 142,475 women-years of observation. Contraception 75:344–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ford O, Lethaby A, Roberts H, Mol BW (2012) Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012 Mar 14;3:CD00341–5Google Scholar
  14. Grodstein F, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Stampfer MJ (2000) A prospective, observational study of postmenopausal hormone therapy and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Ann Intern Med 133:933–1001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gronich N, Lavi I, Rennert G (2011) Higher risk of venous thrombosis associated with drospirenone-containing oral contraceptives: a population-based cohort study. CMAJ 183:E1319–E1325PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heiss G, Wallace R, Anderson GL, Aragaki A, Beresford SA, Brzyski R, Chlebowski RT, Gass M, LaCroix A, Manson JE, Prentice RL, Rossouw J, Stefanick ML; WHI Investigators (2008) Health risks and benefits 3 years after stopping randomized treatment with estrogen and progestin. JAMA 299:1036–1045PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hilbert-Walter A, Büttner R, Sieber C, Bollheimer C (2013) Testosteron im Alter: ein Update. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 137:2117–2122Google Scholar
  18. Jick H, Jick SS, Gurewich V, Myers MW, Vasilakis C (1995) Risk of idiopathic cardiovascular death and nonfatal venous thromboembolism in women using oral contraceptives with differing progestagen components. The Lancet 346:1589–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kemmeren JM, Algra A, Grobbee DE (2001) Third generation oral contraceptives and risk of venous thrombosis: meta-analysis. Brit Med J 323:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. LaCroix AZ, Chlebowski RT, Manson JE, Aragaki AK, Johnson KC, Martin L, Margolis KL, Stefanick ML, Brzyski R, Curb JD, Howard BV, Lewis CE, Wactawski-Wende J; WHI Investigators (2011) Health outcomes after stopping conjugated equine estrogens among postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 305:1305–1314PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lidegaard Ø, Nielsen LH, Skovlund CW, Skjeldestad FE, Løkkegaard E (2011) Risk of venous thromboembolism from use of oral contraceptives containing different progestogens and oestrogen doses: Danish cohort study, 2001-9. BMJ 25 343:d642–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lidegaard O, Nielsen LH, Skovlund CW, Løkkegaard E (2013) Venous thrombosis in users of non-oral hormonal contraception: follow-up study, Denmark 2001-10. BMJ 344:e299–0Google Scholar
  23. Long CY, Liu CM, Hsu SC, Wu CH, Wang CL, Tsai EM (2006) A randomized comparative study of the effects of oral and topical estrogen therapy on the vaginal vascularization and sexual function in hysterectomized postmenopausal women. Menopause 13:737–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McFadyen IJ, Forrest APM, Raab GM, Macintyre CCA (1989) Progesterone cream for cyclic breast pain. Brit Med J 289:93–1Google Scholar
  25. Million WStudyC (2003) Breast cancer and hormone-replacement in the Million Women Study. The Lancet 362:419–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Million WStudyC (2005) Endometrial cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. The Lancet 365:1543–1551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Million WStudyC (2007) Ovarian cancer and hormone replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. The Lancet 369:1703–1710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Modelska K, Cummings S (2002) Tibolone for postmenopausal women: systematic review of randomized trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:16–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Advisory Panel NAMS (2003) Amended report from the NAMS Advisory Panel on postmenopausal hormone therapy. Menopause 10:6–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nelson HD (2004) Commonly used types of postmenopausal estrogen for treatment of hot flashes: scientific review. JAMA 291:1610–1620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Oddsson K, Leifels-Fischer B, de Melo NR, Wiel-Masson D, Benedetto C, Verhoeven CH, Dieben TO (2005) Efficacy and safety of a contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing) compared with a combined oral contraceptive: a 1-year randomized trial. Contraception 71:176–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Oelkers W, Foidart JM, Dombrovicz N, Welter A, Heithecker R (1995) Effects of a new oral contraceptive containing an antimineralocorticoid progestogen, drospirenone, on the rennin-aldosterone system, body weight, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and lipid metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80:1816–1821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ravdin PM, Cronin KA, Howlader N, Berg CD, Chlebowski RT, Feuer EJ, Edwards BK, Berry DA (2007) The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States. N Engl J Med 356:1670–1674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Royal College of General Practitioners Oral Contraception Study (1981): Further analysis of mortality in oral contraceptive users. Lancet I: 541–546Google Scholar
  35. Schubert M, Minnemann T, Hubler D, Rouskova D, Christoph A, Oettel M, Ernst M, Mellinger U, Krone W, Jockenhövel F (2004) Intramuscular testosterone undecanoate: pharmacokinetic aspects of a novel testosterone formulation during long-term treatment of men with hypogonadism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:5429–5434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Spitzer WO, Lewis MA, Heinemann LAJ, Thorogood M, MacRae KD (1996) Third generation oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolic disorders: an international case-control study. Brit Med J 312:83–88PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Van Grootheest K, Vrieling T (2003) Thromboembolism associated with the new contraceptive Yasmin. BMJ 326:25–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease and Steroid Hormone Contraception (1995) Effect of different progestagens in low oestrogen oral contraceptives on venous thromboembolic disease. The Lancet 346:1582–1588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Womens Health Initiative Steering Committee (2004) Effect of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy. The Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 291:1701–1712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators (2002) Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. Principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 288:321–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yang LP, Plosker GL (2012) Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol: in oral contraception. Drugs 72:1917–1928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zbuk K, Anand SS (2013) Declining incidence of breast cancer after decreased use of hormone-replacement therapy: magnitude and time lags in different countries. J Epidemiol Community Health 66:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulrich Schwabe
    • 1
  1. 1.Pharmakologisches InstitutUniversität HeidelbergHeidelberg

Personalised recommendations