Making Operation-Based CRDTs Operation-Based

  • Carlos Baquero
  • Paulo Sérgio Almeida
  • Ali Shoker
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8460)


Conflict-free Replicated Datatypes (CRDT) are usually classified as either state-based or operation-based. However, the standard definition of op-based CRDTs is very encompassing, allowing even sending the full-state, blurring the distinction. We introduce pure op-based CRDTs, that can only send operations to other replicas, drawing a clear distinction from state-based ones. Datatypes with commutative operations can be trivially implemented as pure op-based CRDTs using standard reliable causal delivery. We propose an extended API – tagged reliable causal broadcast – that provides causality information upon delivery, and show how it can be used to also implement other datatypes having non-commutative operations, through the use of a PO-Log – a partially ordered log of operations – inside the datatype. A semantically-based PO-Log compaction framework, using both causality and what we denote by causal stability, allows obtaining very compact replica state for pure op-based CRDTs, while also benefiting from small message sizes.


Reference Implementation Causality Information Concurrent Operation Query Function Vector Clock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos Baquero
    • 1
  • Paulo Sérgio Almeida
    • 1
  • Ali Shoker
    • 1
  1. 1.HASLab/INESC TEC and Universidade do MinhoBragaPortugal

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