A few years ago Rivlin and Thomas (1) illustrated experimentally that the rupture phenomenon of rubber is related closely to the amount of energy release associated with the rupture process. The analysis of the energy release from the mechanics point of view is therefore needed. For linear elastic materials, it can be computed as the work required to close the crack for a short distance. This method will not be valid for inelastic materials. From a different approach, Rice (3) discovered a path-independent integral which for elastic materials can be interpreted as the energy release per unit extension of the crack surface. Though this derivation is, strictly speaking, valid only for nonlinear elastic materials in general, it has been capable of applying to the case of elastic-plastic fracture with considerable success (4). A similar result was independently obtained by Cherepanov (5) whose integral is valid for elastic as well as inelastic materials under the condition of infinitesimal deformation. A more general energy release integral is derived by employing a well-known energy balance equation in continuum mechanics as shown by a paper by Thomas (6).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1).
    Rivlin, R. S. and A. G.Thomas, J. Polymer Science 10, 291 (1953).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2).
    Thomas, A. G., J. Polymer Science 18, 177 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3).
    Rice, J. R., J. Appl. Mech. 35, 379 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4).
    Rice, J. R., in: H. Liebowitz (Ed.), Fracture, Vol. 2 (New York 1968).Google Scholar
  5. 5).
    Cherepanov, G. P., J. Appl. Math. Mech. (PMM) 31, 476 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6).
    Thomas, T Y., Math. Mag. 22, 169 (1949).CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7).
    Bernstein, B., E. A. Kearsley, and L. J. Zapas, Trans. Soc. Rheol. 7, 391 (1963).CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8).
    Chang, S. J., Z. Ang. Math. Phys. 23, 149 (1972).CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shih-Jung Chang
    • 1
  • Barry Bernstein
    • 2
  1. 1.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Dept. of MathematicsIllinois Institute of TechnologyChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations