Advertisement

The Intelligence Test in Personality Assessment

  • Sidney J. Blatt
  • Joel Allison

Abstract

The conceptualization and application of the intelligence test has gradually but persistently evolved and expanded in scope. This has been reflected in part in a shift away from a limited preoccupation with the global IQ score to a broader focus on the diverse tasks of an intelligence test as an assessment of ego functions. Increased interest has also been shown in the principles and patterns in which these various ego functions are organized and integrated into various types or modes of adaptation. Thus, while the purpose of early intelligence testing was to evaluate an individual’s general intellectual capacity by comparing it to appropriate norms and standardization groups more recent conceptualization and utilization of intelligence tests have increasingly questioned the arbitrary separation of intelligence, as a functional concept, and personality. To some extent the interrelationship of intelligence and personality was recognized at the outset, but in the somewhat static concept that personality factors could influence and interfere with test efficiency. For example, it was noted relatively early that many patients showed a decline or deterioration as well as marked variability in their intellectual functioning, and interest was focused on the relationship between the range of the scores and various psychopathological conditions. This conceptualization of the relationship of psychopathology to gross scatter of test scores was then refined to include the hypothesis that the variability (or scatter) reflected selective impairments that were specific to various psychopathological states. The development of the Wechsler-Bellevue in the mid-1940’s with its subtests, each of which was administered to all subjects, was an important stimulus to this revised, more refined concept of test scatter because the Wechsler scales permitted more specific and consistent comparisons (Rabin, 1965). It was also with the development of the Wechsler scales that some of the guideposts were established for clarifying the inseparability of intelligence and total personality functioning. The addition of a theoretical analysis of the various psychological functions assessed by the different subtests (Rapaport, Gill & Schafer, 1945; Wechsler, 1944) supplied an interpretive rationale for viewing the interrelationship of the various psychological functions reflected in subtest scores with personality organization. In large measure, this new approach reflected the systematic application to intelligence tests of the hypothesis that each act of the individual bears the imprint of his unique personality organization (the projective hypothesis). This more dynamic conception of intelligence as an integral aspect of personality organization has been re-emphasized, expanded and extended in more recent years (Fromm, Erika, 1954, 1955, 1957, 1960; Mayman, Schafer & Rapaport, 1951; Waite, 1961)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, R. M. The real question in Digit Span performance. Psychol. Rep., 1962, 11, 218.Google Scholar
  2. Allison, J., Blatt, S. J., & Zimet, C. N. The Interpretation of Psychological Tests. New York: Harper and Row, 1967.Google Scholar
  3. Anastasi, Anne. Psychological Testing, 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan, 1961.Google Scholar
  4. Balthazar, E. E. Cerebral unilateralization in chronic epileptic cases: The Wechsler Object Assembly subtest. I. clin. Psychol, 1963, 19, 169–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blatt, S. J. Recall and recognition vocabulary: implications for intellectual deterioration. AMA Arch. gen. Psychiat., 1959, 1, 473–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blatt, S. J., Allison, J., & Baker, B. L. The Wechsler Object Assembly subtest and bodily concerns. J. consult. Psychol, 1965, 29, 223–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blatt, S. J., & Quinlan, P. Punctual and procrastinating students: a study of temporal parameters. J. consult. Psychol, 1967, 31, 169–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burik, T. E. Relative roles of the learning and motor factors in the Digit Symbol subtest. J. Psychol, 1950, 30, 33–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Capretta, P. J. & Berkun, M. M. Validity and reliability of certain measures of psychological stress. Psychol Rep., 1962, 10, 875–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark, J. H., & Moore, J. H. The relationship of Wechsler-Bellevue patterns of psychiatric diagnosis of Army and Air Force prisoners. J. consult. Psychol, 1950, 14, 493–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Corotto, L. V. The relation of performance to verbal IQ in acting out juveniles. J. psychol Stud., 1961, 21, 162–164.Google Scholar
  12. Craddick, R. A. Wechsler-Bellevue IQ scores of psychopathic and non-psychopathic prisoners. J. psychol Stud., 1961, 12, 167–172.Google Scholar
  13. Craddick, R. A., & Grossman, K. Effects of visual distraction upon the WAIS Digit Span. Psychol Rep., 1962, 10, 642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cronbach, L. J. Essentials of Psychological Testing, 2nd ed. New York: Harper, 1960.Google Scholar
  15. Dana, R. H. Manifest anxiety, intelligence and psychopathology. J. consult. Psychol, 1957, 21, 38–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dickstein, L. S., & Blatt, S. J. Death concern, futurity, and anticipation. J. consult. Psychol, 1966, 30, 11–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dickstein, L. S., & Blatt, S. J. The WAIS Picture Arrangement subtest as a measure of anticipation. J. proj. Tech. Pers. Assess., 1967, 31, 32–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Diller, Judith C. A comparison of the test performances of male and female juvenile delinquents. J. genet. Psychol, 1955, 86, 217–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fenichel, O. The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. New York: Norton, 1945.Google Scholar
  20. Fields, J. G. The Performance-Verbal IQ discrepance in a group of sociopaths. J. clin. Psychol, 1960, 16, 321–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fisher, G. C. Selective and differentially accelerated intellectual dysfunction in specific brain damage. J. clin. Psychol, 1958, 14, 395–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fisher, G. M. Discrepancy in Verbal and Performance IQ in adolescent sociopaths. J. clin. Psychol, 1961, 17, 60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Foster, A. L. A note concerning the intelligence of delinquents. J. clin. Psychol, 1959, 15, 78–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fox, Elizabeth, & Blatt, S. J. WAIS Digits backwards and forwards and Rorschach white space responses. Unpublished manuscript, 1965.Google Scholar
  25. Fromm, Erika. Projective aspects of intelligence testing. In A. I. Rabin & Mary R. Haworth (Eds.). Projective Techniques with Children. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1960.Google Scholar
  26. Fromm, Erika, Sc Hartman, Lenore, D. Intelligence: A Dynamic Approach. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1955.Google Scholar
  27. Fromm, Erika, Hartman, Lenore, D. & Marschak, Marian. A contribution to a dynamic theory of intelligence testing of children. J. clin. experim. Psychopath., 1954, 15, 73–95.Google Scholar
  28. Fromm, Erika, Hartman, Lenore, D., & Marschak, Marian. Children’s intelligence tests as a measure of dynamic personality functioning. Amer. J. Orthopsychiat., 1957, 27, 134-144.Google Scholar
  29. Frost, B. P., & Frost, R. The pattern of WISC scores in a group of juvenile sociopaths. J. clin. Psychol, 1962, 18, 354–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gallahar, P. Effects of increased verbal scale difficulty and failure on WAIS digit symbol performance. Dissert. Abstr., 1964, 24, 179.Google Scholar
  31. Gardner, R., Holzman, P. S., Klein, G. S., Linton, Harriet B., & Spence, D. P. Cognitive control: a study of individual consistencies. Psychol. Iss., 1959, 1, no. 4.Google Scholar
  32. Gardner, R. W., Jackson, D. N., & Messick, S. J. Personality organization in cognitive controls and intellectual abilities. Psychol. Iss., 1960, 2, no. 4.Google Scholar
  33. Gilhooly, F. M. Wechsler-Bellevue reliability and the validity of certain diagnostic signs of the neuroses. J. consult. Psychol, 1950, 14, 82–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ginnett, L. E., & Moran, L. J. Stability of vocabulary performance by schizophrenics. J. consult. Psychol, 1964, 28, 178–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goodstein, L. D., & Farber, I. E. On the relation between A-scale scores and Digit Symbol performance. J. consult. Psychol, 1957, 21, 152–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Criffiths, J. S. The effects of experimentally induced anxiety on certain subtests of the Wechsler-Bellevue. Dissert. Abstr., 1958, 18, 655–656.Google Scholar
  37. Guertin, W. H. Auditory interference with Digit Span performance. J. clin. Psychol, 1959, 15, 349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Guertin, W. H., Rabin, A. I., Frank, G., & Ladd, C. Research with the Wechsler Intelligence scales for Adults. Psychol Bull, 1962, 59, 1–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gurvitz, M. S. The Wechsler-Bellevue Test and the diagnosis of psychopathic personality. J. din. Psychol., 1950, 6, 397–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hafner, A. J., Pollie, D. M., & Wapner, I. The relationship between the CMAS and WISC functioning. J. clin. Psychol., 1960, 16, 322–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hartmann, H. Ego Psychology and the Problem of Adaptation. New York: International Universities Press, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Holt, R. R., & Havel, J. A method for assessing primary and secondary process in the Rorschach. In M. Rickers-Ovsiankina (Ed.). Rorschach Psychology. New York: Wiley, 1960. Pp. 263–319.Google Scholar
  43. Hunt, W., Quay, H., & Walker, R. The validity of clinical judgment of asocial tendencies. J. clin. Psychol., 1966, 22, 116–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jurjevichk, R. M. Inter-relationship of anxiety indices on Wechsler intelligence scales and MMPI scales. J. gen. Psychol, 1963, 69, 135–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kaiser, M. The WISC as an instrument for diagnosing sociopathy. Dissert. Abstr., 1964, 25, 2612.Google Scholar
  46. Kasper, S. Progressive matrices (1938) and emotional disturbance. J. consult. Psychol., 1958, 22, 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kingsley, L. Wechsler-Bellevue patterns of psychopaths. J. consult. Psychol, 1960, 24, 373.Google Scholar
  48. Kippner, S. WISC Comprehension and Picture Arrangement subtests as measures of social competence. J. clin. Psychol, 1964, 20, 366–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kris, E. Psychoanalytic Explorations in Art. New York: International Universities Press, 1952.Google Scholar
  50. Kroeber, T. C. The coping functions of the ego mechanisms. In R. W. White (Ed.). The Study of Lives. New York: Atherton Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  51. Levine, M., Glass, H., & Meltzoff, I. The inhibition process, Rorschach human movement responses, and intelligence. J. consult. Psychol, 1957, 21, 41–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Levinson, B. M. Traditional Jewish cultural values and performance on the Wechsler tests. J. educ. Psychol, 1959, 50, 177–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lewinski, R. J. The psychometric pattern: I. Anxiety and neurosis. J. clin. Psychol, 1945, 1, 214–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Littell, W. M. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Review of a decade of research. Psychol Bull, 1960, 57, 132–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Luchins, A., & Luchins, E. Effect of varying administration of the Digit Symbol subtest of the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale. J. gen. Psychol, 1953, 43, 125–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Manne, S. H., Kandel, A., & Rosenthal, D. Difference between Performance IQ and Verbal IQ in a severely psychopathic population. J. din. Psychol, 1962, 18, 73–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Matarazzo, Ruth D. The relationship of manifest anxiety to Wechsler-Bellevue subtest performance. J. consult. Psychol, 1955, 19, 218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Matarazzo, J. D., & Phillips, Jeanne I. Digit Symbol performance as a function of increasing levels of anxiety. J. consult. Psychol, 1955, 19, 131–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Maupin, E., & Hunter, Diane. Digit Span as a measure of attention: attempted validation studies. Psychol Rep., 1966, 18, 457–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mayman, M., Schafer, R., & Rapaport, D. Interpretation of the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale and personality appraisal. In H. H. Anderson & G. L. Anderson (Eds.). An Introduction to Projective Techniques. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1951.Google Scholar
  61. Moldowsky, S., & Moldowsky, Patricia C. Digit Span as an anxiety indicator. J. consult. Psychol, 1952, 16, 115–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Murstein, B. I., & Leipold, W. D. The role of learning and motor abilities in the Wechsler-Bellevue Digit Symbol Subtest. Educ. Psychol. Meas., 1961, 21, 103–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Norman, R. P., & Wilensky, H. Item difficulty of the WAIS Information subtest for a chronic schizophrenic sample. J. clin. Psychol, 1961, 17, 56–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Penfield, W., & Milner, Brenda. Memory deficit produced by bilateral lesions in the hippocampal zone. AMA Arch. Neur. Psychiat., 1958, 79, 475–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rabin, A. I. Diagnostic use of intelligence tests. In Wolman, B. B. (Ed.). Handbook of Clinical Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965.Google Scholar
  66. Rabin, A. I., King, G. F., & Ehrmann, J. C. Vocabulary performance of short-term and long-term schizophrenics. J. abn. soc. Psychol, 1955, 50, 255–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rapaport, D. The autonomy of the ego. Bull. Menninger Clin., 1951, 15, 113–124.Google Scholar
  68. Rapaport, D. The theory of ego autonomy: a generalization. Bull Menninger Clin., 1958, 22, 13–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Rapaport, D., Gill, M., & Schafer, R. Diagnostic Psychological Testing, Vol. I. Chicago: Yearbook Publishers, 1945.Google Scholar
  70. Rashkis, H. A., & Welch, G. S. Detection of anxiety by use of the Wechsler scale. J. clin. Psychol, 1946, 2, 354–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Reich, W. Character Analyses. New York: Noonday Press, 1949.Google Scholar
  72. Sarason, I. G., & Minard, J. Test anxiety, experimental instructions, and the Wechsler Arithmetic, Information, and Similarities. J. educ. Psychol, 1962, 6, 299–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Saunders, D. A. A factor analysis of the Picture Completion items on the WAIS. J. clin. Psychol, 1960, 16, 146–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Saunders, D. A. A factor analysis of the Information and Arithmetic items of the WAIS. Psychol. Rep., 1960, 6, 367–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schafer, R. The Clinical Application of Psychological Tests. New York: International Universities Press, 1948.Google Scholar
  76. Schafer, R. Psychoanalytic Interpretation in Rorschach Testing: Theory and Application. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1954.Google Scholar
  77. Schafer, R. Regression in the service of the ego: Relevance of a psychoanalytic concept for personality assessment. In Gardner Lindzey (Ed.). Assessment of Human Motives. New York: Rinehart, 1958.Google Scholar
  78. Schill, T. The effects of MMPI social introversion on WAIS Picture Arrangement performance. J. clin. Psychol, 1966, 22, 72–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Shapiro, D. Neurotic Styles. New York: Basic Books, 1965.Google Scholar
  80. Sherman, A. R., & Blatt, S. J. The effects of success vs. failure experiences on Digit Span, Digit Symbol and Vocabulary performance. Unpublished manuscript, 1966.Google Scholar
  81. Siegman, A. W. The effort of manifest anxiety on a concept formation task, a non-directed learning task and timed and untimed intelligence tests. J. consult. Psychol, 1956, 20, 176–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Spence, Janet T. Patterns of performance on WAIS Similarities in schizophrenia, brain damage and normal 5s. Psychol Rep., 1963, 13, 431–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wachtel, P. L., & Blatt, S. J. Energy deployment and achievement. J. consult. Psychol, 1965, 29, 302–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Waite, R. R. The intelligence test as a psychodiagnostic instrument. J. prof. Tech., 1961, 25, 90–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Walker, R. E., & Spence, Janet T. Relationship between Digit Span and anxiety. J. consult. Psychol, 1964, 28, 220–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Warner, S. J. The Wechsler-Bellevue psychometric pattern in anxiety neurosis. J. consult., Psychol., 1950, 14, 297–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Watson, C. G. WAIS error types in schizophrenics and organics. Psychol. Rep., 1965, 16, 523–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wechsler, D. The Measurement of Adult Intelligence. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1944.Google Scholar
  89. Wechsler, D. The Measurement and Appraisal of Adult Intelligence, 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wiener, G. The effect of distrust on some aspects of intelligence test behavior. J. consult. Psychol., 1957, 21, 127–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wiens, A. N., Matarazzo, J. D., & Gavor, K. D. Performance and Verbal IQ in a group of sociopaths. J. clin. Psychol., 1959, 15, 191–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wild, Cynthia. Creativity and adaptive regression. J. pers. soc. Psychol., 1965, 2, 161–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Witkin, H. A. Psychological differentiation and forms of pathology. J. abn. Psychol., 1965, 70, 317–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Witkin, H. A., Dyk, R. B., Faterson, H. F., Goodenough, D. R., & Karp, S. A. Psychological Differentiation: Studies of Development. New York: Wiley, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wolfson, W., & Weltman, R. E. Implications of specific WAIS Picture Completion errors. J. clin. Psychol, 1960, 16, 9–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wolfson, W., & Weltman, R. E. Visual-motor proficiency of long and short term planners. Percept. Mot. Skills, 1963, 17, 908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wright, M. W. A study of anxiety in a general hospital setting. Canad. J. Psychol, 1954, 8, 195–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1968

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sidney J. Blatt
  • Joel Allison

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations