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Vitamine und Vitaminkrankheiten

  • Hans Zellweger
  • William H. Adolph
Chapter
Part of the Handbuch der Inneren Medizin book series (INNEREN, volume 6, 2)

Zusammenfassung

„Vitamine sind lebenswichtig, sie wirken in sehr geringen Mengen und kommen weder als Energielieferanten noch als Bausteine für den Organismus und seine Zellen in Betracht“; so lautet nach Abderhalden (1948) die Definition für die Vitamine. In früheren Definitionen wurde noch beigefügt, daß diese Stoffe dem menschlichen Organismus zugeführt werden müssen, da er nicht imstande sei, diese selbst zu bilden. Wir wissen heute, daß dies nicht durchwegs zutrifft. Der Mensch besitzt die Fähigkeit, Provitamine wie z.B. die Provitamine der Vitamine A und D in das wirksame Vitamin überzuführen. Andere Vitamine (K, B12 usw.) können ferner durch Darmbakterien synthetisiert werden; so kann der Organismus, abgesehen von der Neugeborenenperiode und bestimmten pathologischen Bedingungen, ohne Zufuhr von Vitamin K auskommen. Gleiches soll gelegentlich für Vitamin B12 zutreffen. Es ist heute üblich geworden, zwischen den fettlöslichen Vitaminen A, D, K, E und den wasserlöslichen Vitaminen der B-Gruppe und C zu unterscheiden. Hinsichtlich ihrer physiologischen Wirkung lassen sich 2 Gruppen von Vitaminen unterscheiden: Die Vitamine der einen Gruppe, B-Vitamine im allgemeinen, gliedern sich als prosthetische Substanzen in Fermentsysteme ein und erfüllen wichtige Funktionen im intermediären Stoffwechsel der Kohlenhydrate, Fette und Eiweiße.

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