Fossile nicht-marine Mollusken-Faunen aus Nordchina
Eight collections of fossil non-marine mollusks from four different areas in Shantung and Shansi Provinces have been included in this work. One collection from the Kuan-Chuang Series exposed in the Meng-Yin Valley contains 20 identifiable species, and 16 of them were of terrestrial habitat. The fossil-enclosing beds were probably originated from a basin swamp at Upper Cretaceous times. Another collection of the Kuan-Chuang Series was made in the Lai-Wu Valley, where 6 species of gastropods were found. These fossil-bearing beds probably represented a lacustrine sedimentation, where the water was about 15 to 20 meters in depth, and their age is probably also of late Cretaceous.
Five separate collections were made in the Yuan-Chu area in Shansi Province. The most fossiliferous locality yields 13 species of aquatic and terrestrial gastropods. These findings indicate that their enclosing beds were lake shoreward deposition at Eocene times. One collection was made from the Lou-Tze-Kou Series in the Pao-Teh area. It contains 7 species of mollusks of early Pliocene age, and the fossil beds possibly represented a local swamp area of a valley flat of fluviatile origin.
These collections yield a total record of 46 species of land and freshwater mollusks,, which represented 32 genera in 21 families. 2 genera and 30 species are described here as new to paleontology. The findings of these fossil molluscan faunas demonstrate that their distribution in time is entirely consistent with that in space. Moreover, they show that the fossil faunas comprise, in each respective age, many indigenous elements of the land in addition to the forms of immigration at times from the neighboring continents.
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