Physics of Atomic Nuclei and Elementary Particles

  • Wolfgang Finkelnburg


From the standpoint of a rigid systematical approach, a discussion of the atomistic structure of matter should begin with a discussion of the elementary particles and atomic nuclei. Then atomic physics in its more restricted sense, molecular physics, and physics of the solid state would logically be built up on the theory of the structure of atomic nuclei. In presenting Bohr’s pictorial atomic physics first, we have followed the historical development and, at the same time, had the advantage of proceeding from the simpler to the more difficult. Historically, up to about 1927, the first field to be studied and explained was physics of the atomic shells. Then further development led, on the one hand, to a theory of molecules which are composed of a number of atoms as well as to a theory of larger atomic complexes (liquids and solids) and, on the other hand, to nuclear physics. For this development, it was necessary to have the knowledge of Bohr’s atomic theory and its quantum-mechanical refinements which we discussed in the last chapter. The same applies to our presentation in this book. Energy states and the transitions between them, accompanied by radiation, occur in the nucleus (though with correspondingly larger amounts of energy) just as in the electron shells of the atom. It is impossible to understand essential processes such as the decay of nuclei or the exchange forces which cause the bond between the nuclear constituents without a knowledge of quantum mechanics. It thus seems reasonable, both from the standpoint of an intelligible introduction as well as from that of the actual development of our science, to discuss nuclear physics at this point.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


General nuclear physics

  1. Bitter, F.: Nuclear Physics. Cambridge, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Press 1949.Google Scholar
  2. Cork, J. M.: Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics. New York: Van Nostrand 1950.Google Scholar
  3. Evans, R. D.: The Atomic Nucleus. New York: McGraw-Hill 1955.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Fermi, E.: Nuclear Physics. Chicago: University Press 1950.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. Gentner, W., H. Maier-Leibnitz U. W. Bothe: Atlas of Typical Expansion Chamber Photographs. London: Pergamon Press 1954.Google Scholar
  6. Halliday, D.: Introductory Nuclear Physics. 2nd Ed. New York: Wiley 1955.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Hanle, W.: Künstliche Radioaktivität. 2nd Ed. Stuttgart: Piscator 1952.Google Scholar
  8. Heisenberg, W.: Die Physik der Atomkerne. 3rd Ed. Braunschweig: Vieweg 1949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Heisenberg, W.: Theorie des Atomkernes. Göttingen: Max-Planck-Institut 1951.Google Scholar
  10. International Bibliography on Atomic Energy. Vol. II: Scientific aspects. New York: Columbia University Press 1951.Google Scholar
  11. Kaplan, I.: Nuclear Physics. 2nd Ed. Reading: Addison-Wesley 1963.Google Scholar
  12. Korsunski, M. I.: Isomerie der Atomkerne. Berlin: Deutscher Verlag der Wiss. 1957.Google Scholar
  13. Lapp, R. E., and H. L. Andrews: Nuclear Radiation Physics. 2nd Ed. New York: Prentice Hall 1955.Google Scholar
  14. Mattauch, J., u. S. FLÜGge: Kernphysikalische Tabellen. Berlin: Springer 1942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nuclear Data. National Bureau of Standards. Circular 499ff. Washington D. C.: US Govt. Printing Office 1950.Google Scholar
  16. Pollard, E. C., and W. L. Davidson: Applied Nuclear Physics. 2nd Ed. New York: Wiley 1951.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. Preston, M. A.: Physics of the nucleus. Reading: Addison-Wesley 1962.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. Riezler, W.: Einführung in die Kernphysik. 6th Ed. München: Oldenbourg 1959.Google Scholar
  19. Rutherford, E., T. Chadwick and D. C. Ellis: Radiations from Radioactive Substances. Cambridge: University Press 1930.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. Segré, E. (Editor): Experimental Nuclear Physics. 2 Vols. New York: Wiley 1953.Google Scholar
  21. Siegbahn, K.: Beta and Gamma Spectroscopy. Amsterdam: North Holland Publ. Co. 1955.Google Scholar
  22. Sullivan, W. H.: Trilinear Chart of Nuclides. 2nd Ed. Washington D. C.: US Govt. Printing Office 1957.Google Scholar
  23. Weizsäcker, C. F. v.: Die Atomkerne. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft 1937.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. Wigner, E. P.: Nuclear Physics. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press 1940.Google Scholar

Special fields of nuclear physics

  1. Allen, J. S.: The Neutrino. Princeton: University Press 1958.Google Scholar
  2. Barkas, W. H.: Nuclear Research Emulsions. New York: Academic Press 1963.Google Scholar
  3. Butler, S. T., and D. Hittmair: Nuclear Stripping Reactions. New York: Wiley 1957.Google Scholar
  4. Curran, S. C.: Luminescence and the Scintillation Counter. London: Butterworths 1953.Google Scholar
  5. Curran, S. C., and T. D. Craggs: Counting Tubes. London: Butterworths 1949.Google Scholar
  6. Curtiss, L. F.: Introduction to Neutron Physics. New York: Van Nostrand 1959.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Devons, S.: Excited States of Nuclei. Cambridge: University Press 1949.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. Feather, N.: Nuclear Stability Rules. Cambridge: University Press 1952.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. Frauenfelder, H.: The Mössbauer Effect. New York: Benjamin 1962.Google Scholar
  10. Fünfer, E., u. H. Neuert: Zählrohre und Szintillationszähler. 2nd. Ed. Karlsruhe: Braun 1959.Google Scholar
  11. Hartmann, W., u. F. Bernhard: Photovervielfacher und ihre Anwendung in der Kernphysik. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag 1957.Google Scholar
  12. Hughes, D. J.: Neutron Optics. New York: Interscience 1954.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. Kollath, R.: Teilchenbeschleuniger. 2nd. Ed. Braunschweig: Vieweg 1963.Google Scholar
  14. Kopfermann, H.: Kernmomente, 2nd Ed. Frankfurt: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft 1956.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. Libby, W. F.: Radioactive Dating. Chicago: University Press 1952.Google Scholar
  16. Livingood, J. J.: Principles of Cyclic Particle Accelerators. Princeton: Van Nostrand 1961.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. Livingston, M. S.: High Energy Accelerators. New York: Interscience 1954.Google Scholar
  18. Livingston, M. S., and J. P. Blewett: Particle Accelerators. New York: McGraw-Hill 1962.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. Lösche, A.: Kerninduktion. Berlin: Deutscher Verlag der Wiss. 1957.Google Scholar
  20. Tolansky, S.: Hyperfine Structure in Line Spectra and Nuclear Spin. London: Methuen 1948.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. Wilkinson, D. H.: Ionization Chambers and Counters. Cambridge: University Press 1950.Google Scholar
  22. Williams, J. G.: Principles of Cloud Chamber Technique. Cambridge: University Press 1951.Google Scholar
  23. Wirtz, K., u. K. H. Beckurts: Elementare Neutronenphysik. Heidelberg: Springer 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wlassov, N. A.: Neutronen. Köln: Hoffmann 1959.Google Scholar
  25. Cosmic radiation and physics of elementary particles Google Scholar
  26. Dalitz, R. H.: Strange Particles and Strong Interactions. London: Oxford University Press 1962.Google Scholar
  27. Heisenberg, W.: Kosmische Strahlung. 2nd Ed. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1953.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. Janossy, L.: Cosmic Rays and Nuclear Physics. 1953.Google Scholar
  29. Leprince-Ringuet, L.: The Cosmic Rays. New York: Prentice Hall 1950.Google Scholar
  30. Marshak, R. E.: Meson Physics. New York: McGraw-Hill 1952.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  31. Marshak, R. E., and E. C. G. Sudarshan: Introduction to Elementary-Particle Physics. New York: Interscience 1961.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. Montgomery, D. J. X.: Cosmic Ray Physics. Princeton: University Press 1949.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. Powell, C. F., P. H. Fowler, and D. H. Perkins: The Study of Elementary Particles by the Photographic Method. London: Pergamon Press 1959.Google Scholar
  34. Rochester, G. D., and J. G. Wilson: Cloud Chamber Photographs of the Cosmic Radiation. London: Pergamon Press 1952.Google Scholar
  35. Roman, P.: Theory of Elementary Particles. 2nd Ed. Amsterdam: North Holland 1961.Google Scholar
  36. Rossi, B.: High-Energy Particles. New York: Prentice Hall 1952.Google Scholar
  37. Thorndike, A. M.: Mesons: A Summary of Experimental Facts. New York: McGraw-Hill 1952.Google Scholar
  38. Williams, W. S. C.: An Introduction to Elementary Particles. New York: Academic Press 1961.Google Scholar

Nuclear Theory

  1. Bethe, H. A., and P. Morrison: Elementary Nuclear Theory. 2nd Ed. New York: Wiley 1956.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Blatt, J. M., and V. M. Weisskopf: Theoretical Nuclear Physics. New York: Wiley 1952.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Dänzer, H.: Einführung in die theoretische Kernphysik. Karlsruhe: Braun 1948.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Feenberg, E.: Shell Theory of the Nucleus. Princeton: University Press 1955.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. Fermi, E.: Elementary Particles. New Haven: Yale University Press 1951.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. Frenkel, J. I.: Prinzipien der Theorie der Atomkerne. 2nd Ed. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag 1957.Google Scholar
  7. Gamow, G., and C. L. Critchfield: Theory of the Atomic Nucleus and Nuclear Energy Sources. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1949.Google Scholar
  8. Goeppert-Mayer, M., and J. H. D. Jensen: Elementary Theory of Nuclear Shell Structure. New York: Wiley 1955.Google Scholar
  9. Nemirowskii, P. E.: Contemporary Models of the Atomic Nucleus. New York: Pergamon Press 1963.Google Scholar
  10. Rosenfeld, L.: Nuclear Forces. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co. 1948.Google Scholar
  11. Rosenfeld, L.: Theory of Electrons. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co. 1951. DE-Google Scholar
  12. Shalit, A., and I. Talmi: Nuclear Shell Theory. New York: Academic Press 1963.Google Scholar

Radioactive isotopes and their applications

  1. Broda, E.: Advances in Radiochemistry. Cambridge: University Press 1950.Google Scholar
  2. Friedländer, G., and J. W. Kennedy: Nuclear and Radiochemistry. New York: Wiley 1955.Google Scholar
  3. Hevesy, G. v.: Radioactive Indicators. New York: Interscience 1948.Google Scholar
  4. Kamen, M. D.: Isotopic Tracers in Biology. 3rd Ed. New York: Academic Press 1957.Google Scholar
  5. Libby, W. F.: Radioactive Dating. Chicago: University Press 1952.Google Scholar
  6. Mattauch, J., u. A. Flammersfeld: Isotopenbericht. Tübingen: Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 1949.Google Scholar
  7. Schubert, G.: Kernphysik und Medizin. 2nd Ed. Göttingen: Muster-Schmidt 1948.Google Scholar
  8. Schweitzer, G. K., and J. B. Whitney: Radioactive Tracer Techniques. New York: Van Nostrand 1949.Google Scholar
  9. Schwiegx, H. (Editor): Künstliche radioaktive Isotope in Physiologie, Diagnostik und Therapie. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1953.Google Scholar
  10. Siri, W. E.: Isotopic Tracers and Nuclear Radiations. New York: McGraw-Hill 1949.Google Scholar
  11. Williams, R. R.: Principles of Nuclear Chemistry. New York: Van Nostrand 1950.Google Scholar
  12. Yagoda, H.: Radioactive Measurements with Nuclear Emulsions. New York: Wiley 1949.Google Scholar
  13. Zimen, K.: Angewandte Radioaktivität. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Nuclear energy and its application

  1. Reactor Handbook. 6 Vols. Washington: US Atomic Energy Commission 1955.Google Scholar
  2. Bonilla, C. F. (Editor): Nuclear Engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill 1957.Google Scholar
  3. Cap, F.: Physik und Technik der Atomreaktoren. Wien: Springer 1957.Google Scholar
  4. Etherington, H.: Nuclear Engineering Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill 1958.Google Scholar
  5. Glasstone, S.: Principles of Nuclear Reactor Engineering. New York: Van Nostrand 1955.Google Scholar
  6. Glasstone, S., and M. C. Edlund: The Elements of Nuclear Reactor Theory. New York: Van Nostrand 1952.Google Scholar
  7. Hughes, D. J.: Pile Neutron Research. Cambridge, Mass.: Addison-Wesley 1953.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. Littler, J. J., and J. F. Raffle: An Introduction to Reactor Physics. 2nd Ed. London: Pergamon Press 1957.Google Scholar
  9. Murray, R. L.: Introduction to Nuclear Engineering New York: Prentice Hall 1954.Google Scholar
  10. Murray, R. L.: Nuclear Reactor Physics. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall 1957.Google Scholar
  11. Riezler, W., U. W. Walcher (Editors): Kerntechnik. Stuttgart: Teubner 1958.Google Scholar
  12. Smyth, H. D.: Atomic Energy for Military Purposes (Smyth Report). Princeton: University Press 1946.Google Scholar
  13. Stephenson, R.: Introduction to Nuclear Engineering. 2nd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill 1958.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1964

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang Finkelnburg
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany

Personalised recommendations