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Composition and Mineralogy of Clay Minerals

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Origin and Mineralogy of Clays

Abstract

Clay minerals were initially defined on the basis of their crystal size. They were determined as the minerals whose particle diameters were less than 2 μm. This limit was imposed by the use of the petrographic microscope where the smallest particle which could be distinguished optically was of this size. Clays were essentially those minerals which could not be dealt with in a conventional nineteenth century manner. Chemical analyses were nevertheless made of fine grain size materials, most often with good results. However, the crystal structure and mineralogical family were only poorly understood. This was mainly due to the impurities present in clay aggregates, either as other phases or in multiphase assemblages. Slow progress was made in the early twentieth century, but the advent of reliable X-ray diffractometers allowed one to distinguish between the different mineral species found in the <2 μm grain size fraction. Today we know much more about clay mineral XRD (X-ray diffraction) properties; perhaps too much at times.

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Suggested Reading

  • Barrer RM, Tinker PB (1984) Clay minerals: their structure behaviour and use. Proceeding of the Royal Society, London, 432 pp

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  • Velde B (1985) Clay minerals: a physico-chemical explanation of their occurrence. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 423 pp

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  • Velde B (1992) Introduction to clay minerals. Chapman Hall, London 193 pp Weaver CE (1989) Clays, muds and shales. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 819 pp

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  • Jasmund K, Lagaly G (eds) (1993) Tonminerale und Tone. Steinkopff Verlag, Darmstadt, 490 pp

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© 1995 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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Velde, B. (1995). Composition and Mineralogy of Clay Minerals. In: Velde, B. (eds) Origin and Mineralogy of Clays. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-12648-6_2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-12648-6_2

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-08195-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-662-12648-6

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive

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