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Release of Histamine in Anaphylaxis

  • M. Rocha e Silva
Part of the Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie / Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 18 / 1)

Abstract

As the main characteristics of anaphylaxis in most species of animals and of human allergy involve reactions of smooth muscle, increased capillary permeability (edema formation) and hemodynamic changes with a predominance of fall in arterial blood pressure, it was natural to look for a principle present in the body having such pharmacodynamic actions. Among the endogenous principles known to physiologists in the earliest days of anaphylaxis, only histamine would fit the prerequisites as a mediator of the anaphylactic reactions. However as the complex picture of anaphylaxis emerged from the many-sided studies on its mechanism, it became more and more clear that histamine could not explain all symptoms which are typical of anaphylaxis. In 1941, Dragstedt defined anaphylaxis as a phenomenon of “auto-intoxication by physiologically active substances.” Therefore, besides histamine, many other endogenous principles might participate in the phenomenon, and at least one more principle, heparin, was shown to be released in dog’s anaphylaxis, explaining the decreased coagulability of the blood which is a typical occurrence in this species of animals. Today, though histamine still is the most important mediator of the anaphylactic reaction in some species, as the guinea pig and the dog, we have to look for newly identified principles such as 5-HT and bradykinin (or a slowly reacting principle) in the genesis of anaphylaxis. Other endogenous principles, as acetylcholine, catechol amines or adenylic compounds, could play a rather subsidiary or questionable role in the anaphylactic reaction in all species of animals or in human allergy.

Keywords

Mast Cell Histamine Release Anaphylactic Reaction Anaphylactic Shock Histamine Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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  • M. Rocha e Silva

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