Advertisement

Release of Histamine by Animal Venoms and Bacterial Toxins

  • W. T. Beraldo
  • W. Dias da Silva
Part of the Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie / Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 18 / 1)

Abstract

The problem of release of histamine by animal venoms and bacterial toxins was born out from earlier experiments described by Bruce (1910) in which he claimed that the reddening and swelling that follow the instillation of mustard oil into the conjunctival sac of the rabbit are dependent upon the integrity of the conjunctival nerves. Stevenson and Reid (1915) repeated Bruce’s experiments and could not reproduce his findings. Groll (1922), Hirschfelder (1924), Nakamura and Takahashi (1924), Tannenberg and Degener (1925), Hanzlik (1926), Tainter and Reichert (1928) using several local anesthetics were unanimous in their findings that the chemosis produced by mustard oil in the anesthetized eye is not appreciably different from the opposite non-anesthetized control.

Keywords

Mast Cell Histamine Release Snake Venom Anaphylactic Shock Ascaris Lumbricoides 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anamxiewicz, V. W., and L. M. Adamriewicz: Glucose and the dextran anaphylactoid inflammation. Amer. J. Physiol. 198, 51 (1960).Google Scholar
  2. Ainsworth, G. C., A. M. Brown, and G. Brownleee: “Aerosporin”, an antibiotic produced by Bacillus aerosporus Greer. Nature (Lond.) 160, 263 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alam, M., G. V. Anrep, G. S. Barsoum, M. Talaat, and E. Wieninger: Liberation of histamine from the skeletal muscle by curare. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 95, 148 (1939).Google Scholar
  4. Allard, H. F., and H. A. Allard: Venomous moths and butterflies. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 48, 18 (1958).Google Scholar
  5. Altamirano, F.: Algunas observaciones fisiologicas sobre los efectos de la ponzona del alacran de jojutla. Mem. soc. tient. Antonio Alzate 14, 327 (1899).Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, J. F., and M. J. Rosenau: Anaphylaxis. Arch. intern. Med. 3, 519 (1909).Google Scholar
  7. Anrep, G. V., M. S. Ayadi, G. S. Barsoum, J. R. Smith, and M. M. Talaat: The excretion of histamine in urine. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 103, 155 (1944).Google Scholar
  8. Armstrong, D., R. M. L. Dry, C. A. Keele, and J. W. Markham: Observations on chemical excitants of cutaneous pain in man. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 120, 326 (1953).Google Scholar
  9. Arthus, M.: De l’anaphylaxie à l’immunité. Paris: Masson 1921.Google Scholar
  10. Bain, W. A., J. L. Broadbent, and R. P. Warin: Comparison of anthisan (Mepyramine maleate) and phenergan, as histamine antagonists. Lancet 1949 II, 47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bartosch, R., W. Feldberg U. E. Nagel: Das Freiwerden eines histaminähnlichen Stoffes bei der Anaphylaxie des Meerschweinchens. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 230, 129 (1932).Google Scholar
  12. Bellesme, J.: Essai sur le venin de scorpion. Rev. Magazin Zool. 23, 150 (1871/72).Google Scholar
  13. Bartosch, R.: Recherches sur la digestion chez les mollusques céphalopodes. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 138, 428 (1879).Google Scholar
  14. Benedict, R. G., and A. F. Langlykre: Antibiotic activity of Bacillus polymyxa. J. Bact. 54, 24 (1947).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Beraldo, W. T.: Formation of bradykinin in anaphylactic and peptone shock. Amer. J. Physiol. 163, 283 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Beraldo, W. T., W. Dias DA Silva, and J. Pudles: Antigenic properties of purified fractions from Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum on naturally sensitized guinea-pig. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 17, 236 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bert, P.: Contribution a l’étude des venins (venin de scorpion). C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 17, 136 (1865).Google Scholar
  18. Bhattaoharya, B. K., and G. P. Lewis: The release of 5-hydroxytryptamine by histamine liberators. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 11, 202 (1956).Google Scholar
  19. Bier, O., cited by M. Rogna E Silva: Histamina e Anafilaxia. Sao Paulo: Edigraf 1946.Google Scholar
  20. Bordas, L.: Recherches sur les glandes venimeuses du Latrodectus 13-guttatus Rossi. Associat. franc. pour l’Avant. des Sci. Congrès d’Ajaccio, 8. Sept. (1901a).Google Scholar
  21. Bier, O.,: Recherches sur les effets des piqures de Lactrodectus 13-guttatus Rossi ou Malmignatte. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 133, 953 (1901b).Google Scholar
  22. Bier, O.,: Recherches anatomiques, histologiques et physiologiques sur glandes venimeuses ou glandes des chélicères des Malmignattes (Lactrodectus 13-guttatus Rossi). Ann. Sci. nat. Zool. 79, 147 (1905).Google Scholar
  23. BoyÉ, R.: La papillonite guyanaise. Bull. Soc. Path. exot. 25, 1099 (1932).Google Scholar
  24. Brocklehurst, W. E.: Ciba Foundation Symposium on Histamine. A slow reacting substance in anaphylaxis “Srs-A”. London: Churchill Ltd. 1956.Google Scholar
  25. Bruce, A. N.: Über die Beziehung der sensiblen Nervenendigungen zum Entzündungsvorgang. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak. 113, 424 (1910).Google Scholar
  26. Bushby, S. R. M., and A. F. Green: The release of histamine by polymyxin B and polymyxin E. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 10, 215 (1955).Google Scholar
  27. Buttle, G. A. H., and J. W. Trevan: The action of Vibrion septique and B. welchii toxin on isolated organs. B.it. J. exp. Path. 9, 182 (1928).Google Scholar
  28. Callow, R. K., R. E. Glover, P. D. A. Hart, and G. M. Hills: Licheniformin, antibiotic substance from Bacillus licheniformis active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Brit. J. exp. Path. 28, 418 (1947).Google Scholar
  29. Calmette, A.: Contribution à l’étude des venins, des toxines et des sérums antitoxiques. Iii. Venin des Scorpions. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 9, 53 (1895a).Google Scholar
  30. Calmette, A.: Contributions a l’étude des venins, des toxines et des sérums antitoxiques. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 9, 225 (1895b).Google Scholar
  31. Catola, G.: Crises vaso-motrices céphaliques et ménieriformes par venin d’abeille. Rev. neurol. 35, 260 (1928).Google Scholar
  32. Cattaneo, C.: Nota preventiva sulla tossicità degli Ascaridi. Associazione medico-chirurgica di Parma. Zit. nach Biochem. Zbl. (1903).Google Scholar
  33. Chanson, V.: Contribution à l’étude des accidents produits par les Ascarides. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 48, 38 (1906).Google Scholar
  34. Clark, W. G., W. J. Hartman, R. A. Liebhold, A. L. Jordon, and S. D. Cyr: Some aspects of the biochemical pharmacology of the octopus. Proc. W. Pharmacol. Soc. 3, 106 (1960).Google Scholar
  35. Collier, H. O. J., and B. Macauley: The pharmacological properties of “laudolissin” —A long — action curarizing agent. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 7, 378 (1952).Google Scholar
  36. Copenhaver, J. H., M. E. Nagler, and A. Goth: The intracellular distribution of histamine. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 109, 401 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dale, H. H.: The anaphylactic reaction of plain muscle in the guinea-pig. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 4, 167 (1913).Google Scholar
  38. Debove, M.: De l’intoxication hydatique. Bull. Soc. Med. Hôp. Paris 5, 113 (1888).Google Scholar
  39. Del Pozo, E. C.: Mechanism of pharmacological actions of scorpion venoms. In: Venoms. Ed. E. E. Buckley and N. Porges. Washington, D. C. Amer. Ass. Advanc. Sci. (1956).Google Scholar
  40. Debove, M., L. G. Angutano y J. Gonzalez: Actions del veneno de alacran sobre el sistema vasomotor. Rev. Inst. Salubr. Enferm trop. (Mex.) 5, 227 (1944).Google Scholar
  41. Dessy, S., y R. A. Marotta: Toxicidad del liquido del quiste hidâtico. Rev. Soc. Med. Arg. 20, 373 (1912).Google Scholar
  42. Dew, H. R.: Hydatid disease; its pathology, diagnosis and treatment. Sidney: Aust. Med. Publ. Co. Ltd. 1928.Google Scholar
  43. Dias DA Silva, W., W. T. Beraldo, and J. Pudles: Histamine release and mast cell damage induced by purified fraction from Ascaris lumbricoides, in vitro. Effect of inhibitors of anaphylaxis. Acta physiol. lat.-amer. 11, 264 (1961).Google Scholar
  44. Dias DA Silva, W., A. D. L. Fernandes, and W. T. Beraldo: Inhibitory effects of carbohydrates on histamine release and mast cell disruption by dextran. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 19, 405 (1962).Google Scholar
  45. Diamant, B.: Histamine release elicited by extracts from Ascaris suis. Influence of oxygen lack and glucose. Acta physiol. scand. 52, 8 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Diniz, C. R.: Chromatographic separation of smooth muscle active substances from spider venoms. Acta physiol. lat.-amer. (in press) (1962).Google Scholar
  47. Diniz, C. R. and J. M. GonÇAlves: Some chemical and pharmacological properties of Brazilian scorpion venoms. In: Venoms, Ed. E. E. Buckley and N. Porges. Washington, D. C. Amer. Ass. Advanc. Sci. (1956).Google Scholar
  48. Diniz, C. R. and J. M. GonÇAlves: Separation of biologically active components from scorpion venoms by zone electrophoresis. Biochim. biophys. Acta 41, 470 (1960).Google Scholar
  49. Dragstedt, C. A., and E. Gebauer-Fuelnegg: Studies in anaphylaxis. I. The appearance of a physiologically active substance during anaphylactic shock. Amer. J. Physiol. 102, 512 (1932).Google Scholar
  50. Dragstedt, C. A., and M. Rocha E Silva: Effect of trypsin upon blood histamine of rabbits. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 47, 420 (1941).Google Scholar
  51. Duhig, J. V.: Nature of venom of “Synanceja horrida” (stonefish). Z. Immun.-Forsch. 62, 185 (1929).Google Scholar
  52. Duhig, J. V. and G. Jones: The venom apparatus of the stone fish (Synanceja horrida). Mem. Queensland Museum 9, 136 (1928).Google Scholar
  53. Dutta, N. K., and K. G. A. Narayanan: Release of histamine from rat diaphragm by cobra venom. Nature (Lond.) 168, 1064 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ebbecke, U.: Capillarerweiterung, Urticaria und Schock. Klin. Wschr. 2, 1725 (1923).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ellis, S., and O. Krayer: Properties of a toxin from the salivary gland of the shrew, Blarina brevicauda. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 114, 127 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Essex, H. E., and J. Markowitz: The physiologic action of rattlesnake venom (crotalin). I. Effect on blood pressure: symptoms and post-mortem observations. Amer. J. Physiol. 92, 317 (1930a).Google Scholar
  57. Essex, H. E., and J. Markowitz: The physiologic action of rattlesnake venom (crotalin). II. The effect of crotalin on surviving organs. Amer. J. Physiol. 92, 329 (1930b).Google Scholar
  58. Essex, H. E., and J. Markowitz: The physiologic action of rattlesnake venom (crotalin). Iii. The influence of crotalin on blood, in vitro and in vivo. Amer. J. Physiol. 92, 335 (1930c).Google Scholar
  59. Essex, H. E., and J. Markowitz: The physiologic action of rattlesnake venom (crotalin). IV. The effect on lower forms of life. Amer. J. Physiol. 92, 342 (1930d).Google Scholar
  60. Essex, H. E., and J. Markowitz: The physiologic action of rattlesnake venom (crotalin). Some experiments on immunity to crotalin. Amer. J. Physiol. 92, 345 (1930e).Google Scholar
  61. Estable, C., P. Ferreira-Berruti, M. I. Ardao: ContribuCion al conocimiento de la toxina de Megalopyge urens y de su acción farmacodinâmica. Arch. Soc. Biol. Montevideo 12, 186 (1945).Google Scholar
  62. Fawcett, D. W.: Cytological and pharmacological observations on the release of histamine by mast cells. J. exp. Med. 100, 217 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Feldberg, W.: The action of bee venom, cobra venom and lysolecithin on the adrenal medulla. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 99, 104 (1940).Google Scholar
  64. Feldberg, W., H. F. Holden, and C. H. Kellaway: The formation of lysocithin and of a muscle-stimulating substance by snake venoms. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 94, 232 (1938).Google Scholar
  65. Feldberg, W., and B. Holmes: The effect of muscular contraction and of curarine on acid gastric secretion in cats. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 99, 3 P (1941).Google Scholar
  66. Feldberg, W., and C. H. Kellaway: Liberation of histamine from the perfused lung by snake venoms. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 90, 257 (1937a).Google Scholar
  67. Feldberg, W., and C. H. Kellaway: Liberation of histamine from the perfused lung of the guinea-pig by bee venom. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 91, 2P (1937b).Google Scholar
  68. Feldberg, W., and C. H. Kellaway: Liberation of histamine and formation of lysocithin-like substances by cobra venom. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 94, 187 (1938a).Google Scholar
  69. Feldberg, W., and C. H. Kellaway: Liberation of histamine by staphylococcal toxin and mercuric chloride. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 16, 249 (1938b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Feldberg, W., C. H. Kellaway, and W. V. Keogh: Liberation of histamine from the perfused lung by staphylococcal toxin. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 90, 280 (1937).Google Scholar
  71. Feldberg, W., and A. A. Miles: Regional variations of increased permeability of skin capillaries induced by histamine liberator and their relation to histamine content of skin. J. Physiol. (Loud.) 120, 205 (1953).Google Scholar
  72. Feldberg, W., and J. L. Mongar: Comparison of histamine release of compound 48/80 and octylamine in perfused tissues. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 9, 197 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Feldberg, W., and W. D. M. Paton: Release of histamine from skin and muscle in the cat by opium alkaloids and other histamine liberators. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 114, 490 (1951).Google Scholar
  74. Feldberg, W., and M. Schachter: Histamine release by horse serum from skin of the sensitized dog and non-sensitized cat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 118, 124 (1952).Google Scholar
  75. Flury, F.: Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie. Berlin: Springer 1930. FooT, N. C.: Pathology of the dermatitis caused by Megalopyge opercularis, a Texan caterpillar. J. exp. Med. 35, 737 (1922).Google Scholar
  76. Fonseca, F Animais Peçonhentos. Sao Paulo (Brazil), Emp. Graf. Revistas dos Tribunais, Ltda. (1949).Google Scholar
  77. Fredholm, B., B. HÖGberg, and B. UvnÄS: Role of phospholipase A and C in mast cell degranulation induced by non-purified Clostridium welchii toxin. Biochem. Pharmacol. 5, 39 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gail, R., and J. Rageau: Premières observations sur un poisson marin venimeux de la nouvellecalédenie: La synancée (Synanceia verruces Bloch). Bull. Soc. Path. exot. 49, 846 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gaminara, A Le venin de la larve de Megalopyge urens. Bull. Soc. Path. exot. 21, 656 (1928).Google Scholar
  80. Garcia-Arocha, H.: Release of histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine from cells of the peritoneal fluid of rats. Canad. J. Biochem. Physiol. 39, 395 (1961).Google Scholar
  81. Gazzinelli, G., M. M. Guta, A. G. G. Neves, J. Pudles, W. T. Beraldo, and W. Dias DA Silva: Purification of the toxic fractions from Ascaris lumbricoides and their effect on the guinea-pig. Nature (Lond.) 190, 813 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gebauer-Fielnegg, E., and C. A. Dragstedt: Studies in anaphylaxis. II. The nature of a physiologically active substance appearing during anaphylactic shock. Amer. J. Physiol. 102, 520 (1932).Google Scholar
  83. Gershon, M. D., and L. L. Ross: Studies on the relationship of 5-hydroxytryptamine and the enterochromaffin cell to anaphylactic shock in mice. J. exp. Med. 115, 367 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Giusti, L. et E. Hug: Propriétés pharmacodynamiques du liquide hydatique. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 88, 344 (1923).Google Scholar
  85. Glenny, A. T., M. Barr, M. Llewellyn-Jones, T. Dalling, and H. E. Ross: Multiple toxins produced by some organisms of Cl. welchii group. J. Path. Bact. 37, 53 (1933).Google Scholar
  86. Goeldi (1902): Quoted by Fonseca, F.: Animais peçonhentos. Sao Paulo ( Brazil ), Emp. Graf. Revistas dos Tribunais. Ltda. (1949).Google Scholar
  87. Gosse, P. H.: A history of the British Sea Anemones. London: Ray Society 1860.Google Scholar
  88. Goth, A., W. L. Nash, M. Nagler and J. Holman: Inhibition of histamine release in experimental diabetes. Amer. J. Physiol. 191, 25 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Gotzl, F. R., and C. A. Dragstedt: Peptone shock in rabbits. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 74, 33 (1942).Google Scholar
  90. Grana, A., P. Recarte, and E. Balea: La histaminemia en la alergia hidatidica. Medicina (Madr.) 3, 198 (1943).Google Scholar
  91. Groll, H.: Die Entzündung in ihren Beziehungen zum nervösen Apparat. (Eine experimentelle Studie). Beitr. Path. Anat. 70, 20 (1922).Google Scholar
  92. GusMao, H. H., O. P. Forattini e A. Rotberg: Dermatite provocada por lepidópteros do gênero Hylesia. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo 3, 114 (1961).Google Scholar
  93. Guyon, M.: Sur les accidents produits sur les animaux a sang chaud, mammifères et oiseaux, par le venin des scorpions. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 60, 16 (1865).Google Scholar
  94. Habermann, E.: Gewinnung und pharmakologische Bedeutung einiger Komponenten des Giftes des Gasbranderregers (clostridium Welchii Typ A). Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak 236, 274 (1959).Google Scholar
  95. Raining, C. G.: Activation of rabbit serum protease by dextran sulphate. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 11, 107 (1956).Google Scholar
  96. Halpern, B. N., et M. Briot: Liberation d’histamine par la peau du rat sous l’effet du contact avec le dextran, in vitro. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 146, 1552 (1952).Google Scholar
  97. Halstead, B. W.: Animal phyla known to contain poisonous marine animals. Venoms, Washington D. C. Amer. Ass. Advanc. Sci. (1956).Google Scholar
  98. Hanzlir, P. J.: Nerve mechanisms in production and treatment of certain edemas, and role of adrenals in preventive effects of certain drugs. Calif. west. Med. 24, 33 (1926).Google Scholar
  99. Hartman, W. J., W. G. Clark, S. D. Cyr, A. L. Jordon, and R. A. Liebhold: Pharmacologically active amines and their biogenesis in the octopus. Ann N Y. Acad. Sci. 90, 637 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Hinshaw, L. B., M. M. Jordan, and J. A. Vick: Mechanism of histamine release in endotoxin shock. Amer. J. Physiol. 200, 987 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Hirschfelier, A. D.: Studies upon vascular and capillary phenomena and supposed axon reflexes concerned in development of edema in mustard oil conjunctivitis, together with effects of vasodilator drugs, local anesthetics and vital stains. Amer. J. Physiol. 70, 507 (1924).Google Scholar
  102. Gberg, B., G. Thupvesson, and B. UvnÄS: Histamine liberation produced in the perfused paw of the cat by 48/80 and extracts from jelly-fish (Cyanea capillata) and eelworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) from swine. Acta physiol. scand. 38, 135 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Houssay, B. A.: Action physiologique du venin des scorpions (Buthus quinquestriatus et Tityus bähiensis). J. Physiol. Path. gén. 18, 305 (1919).Google Scholar
  104. Humphrey, L.: An inquiry into the severe symptoms occasionally following puncture of hydatid cysts of the liver. Lancet 1887 I, 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ihering, R. vox: Estudo biologico das lagartas urticantes ou tatoranas. An. Paul. Med. Cirurgia 3, 129 (1914).Google Scholar
  106. Jaques, L. B., and E. T. Waters: The identity and origin of the anticoagulant of anaphylactic shock in the dog. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 99, 454 (1941).Google Scholar
  107. Jaques, R., and M. Schachter: A sea anemone extract (thalassine) which liberates histamine and a slow contracting substance. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 9, 49 (1954a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Jaques, R., and M. Schachter: The presence of histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and a potent slow contracting substance in wasp venom. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 9, 53 (1954b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Joyeux-Laffuie, J.: Sur l’appareil venimeux et le venin du scorpion. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 95, 866 (1882).Google Scholar
  110. Kaiser, E.: The enzymatic activity of spider venom. Mem. inst. Butantan. 25, 35 (1953).Google Scholar
  111. Karsner, H. T., and A. R. Moritz: Pathologic histology of the Shwartzman phenomenon with interpretative comments. J. exp. Med. 60, 37 (1934).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Katz, G.: Histamine release from blood cells in anaphylaxis in vitro. Science 91, 221 (1940).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Katz, G. and S. Cohen: Experimental evidence for histamine release in allergy. J. Amer. med. Ass. 117, 1782 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kellaway, C. H.: The action of Australian snake venoms on plain muscle. Brit. J. exp. Path. 10, 281 (1929).Google Scholar
  115. Kellaway, C. H., and D. H. LE Messurier: Vaso-depressant action of venom of Australian copperhead (Denisonia superba). Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 14, 57 (1936).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kellaway, C. H., G. Reid, and E. R. Trethewie: Circulatory and other effects of the toxin of Cl. septique. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 19, 297 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kellaway, C. H., and E. R. Trethewie: Liberation of adenyl compounds from perfused organs by cobra venom: Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 18, 63 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kellaway, C. H., and E. R. Trethewie: Tissue injury by the toxin of Cl. welchii type A. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 19, 17 (1941a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Kellaway, C. H., and E. R. Trethewie: The injury of tissue cells and the liberation of pharmacologically active substances by the toxins of Cl. welchii types B. and C. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 19, 77 (1941b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kellaway, C. H. and W. Turner: The liberation of histamine and of adenyl compounds by the toxin of Cl. welchii type D. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 18, 253 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Kuida, H., L. B. Hinshaw, R. P. Gilbert, and M. B. Visscher: Effect of gram-negative endotoxin on pulmonary circulation. Amer. J. Physiol. 192, 335 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Kun, E.: Effect of meningococcal endotoxin on histamine content of blood and tissues of rabbit. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 66, 197 (1947).Google Scholar
  123. Langer, J.: Über das Gift unserer Honigbiene. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. exp. Pharm. Pathol. 38, 381 (1896).Google Scholar
  124. Langer, J.: Abschwächung und Zerstörung des Bienengiftes. Arch. in Pharmak. 6, 181 (1899).Google Scholar
  125. Leger, M., and P. Mouzels: Dermatose prurigineuse déterminée par des papillons saturnidae du genre Hylesia. Bull. Soc. Path. exot. 11, 104 (1918).Google Scholar
  126. Lewis, T.: The blood vessels of the human skin and their responses. London: Shaw and Sons Ltd. 1927.Google Scholar
  127. Linstrow, O.: Über den Giftgehalt der Helminthen. Intern. Mschr. Anat. Physiol. 13, 188 (1896).Google Scholar
  128. Livon, C., and A. Briot: Le suc salivaire des céphalopodes est un poison nerveux pour les crustacés. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 58, 878 (1905).Google Scholar
  129. Lozano Y., Moxzox, R.: Chascos y peligros de la hidatidosis; el’’schock“ anafilatico mortal. Arch. int. Hidatid. 1, 95 (1934).Google Scholar
  130. Ludwig, O.: Anaphylaktischer Schock durch Insektenstich. Munch. med. Wschr. 18, 1564 (1934).Google Scholar
  131. Maciebouef, M., et R. Mandoul: A propos de la toxité des extraits d’Ascaris. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 130, 1032 (1939).Google Scholar
  132. Macfarlane, M. G., and B. C. J. G. Knight: The biochemistry of bacterial toxins. I. The lecithinase activity of Cl. welchii toxins. Biochem. J. 35, 884 (1941).Google Scholar
  133. Macintosh, F. C., and W. D. M. Paton: The liberation of histamine by certain organic bases. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 109, 190 (1949).Google Scholar
  134. Maclean, L. D., and M. H. Weil: Hypotension (shock) produced by Escherichia coli endotoxin. Circulat. Res. 4, 456 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Magaliines, O: Contribuiçâo para o conhecimento da intoxicaçâo pelo veneno dos escorpiôes. Mem. Inst. Osw. Cruz. 21, 5 (1928).Google Scholar
  136. MagaliinES, O: Estudos sôbre os coleópteros vesicantes. Brasil-med. n°s. 10 a 13, 11 (1960).Google Scholar
  137. Mcilwain, H., and H. L. Huddle: Techniques in tissue metabolism. I. A mechanical chopper. Biochem. J. 53, 412 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Mcintire, F., L. W. Roth, and M. Sproull: Histamine release in rabbit blood by simple molecules; inhibition and reaction rate studies. Amer. J. Physiol. 167, 233 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Messineo, E., and D. Calamida: Über das Gift der Tänien. Anal. in Arch. ital. Biol. 38, 490 (1902).Google Scholar
  140. Mingazzini, P.: Sull’esistenza di una secrezione emessa dalla superficie del corpo dei cestodi adulti. Atti Acad. Lincei Roma 10, 307 (1901).Google Scholar
  141. Mitchell, S. W.: Physiology and toxicology of the venom of the rattlesnake Smithson. Contrib. 12, 1 (1861).Google Scholar
  142. Mitchell, S. W., and E. T. Reichert: Researches upon the venoms of poisonous serpents. Smithson. Contrib. 26, 1 (1886).Google Scholar
  143. Mongar, J. L., and H. O. Schild: Quantitative measurement of the histamine-releasing activity of a series of monoalkylamines using minced guinea-pig lung. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 8, 103 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Mongar, J. L., and H. O. Schild: Effect of antigen and organic bases on intracellular histamine in guinea-pig lung. J. Physiol. (Loud.) 131, 207 (1956).Google Scholar
  145. Mongar, J. L., and H. O. Schild: Effect of temperature on the anaphylactic reaction. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 135, 320 (1957).Google Scholar
  146. Mongar, J. L., and R. F. Whelan: Histamine release by adrenaline and D-tubocurarine in the human subject. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 120, 146 (1953).Google Scholar
  147. Morrison, J. L., A. P. Richardson, and W. L. Bloom: The effects of antihistaminic agents on the reaction of the rat to dextran. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 88, 98 (1951).Google Scholar
  148. Mosso, A.: Un venin dans le sang des Murénides. Arch. ital. biol. 10, 139 (1888).Google Scholar
  149. Mota, I.: The mechanism of action of anaphylatoxin. Its effect on guinea-pig mast cells. Immunology 2, 403 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Mota, I., W. T. Beraldo, A. G. Ferri, and L. C. U. Junqueira: Intracellular distribution of histamine. Nature (Lond.) 174, 698 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Mota, I., and L. C. U. Junqueira: Protamine-like property of compound 48/80 and stilbamidine and their action on mast cells. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 83, 455 (1953).Google Scholar
  152. Mota, I., and W. Dias DA Silva: Antigen-induced damage to isolated sensitized mast cells. Nature (Lond.) 186, 245 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Mota, I., and I. Vugman: Effects of anaphylactic shock and compound 48/80 on the mast cells of the guinea-pig lung. Nature (Loud.) 177, 427 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Moura GonÇAlves, J., and M. Rocha, E. Silva: Fator de permeabilidade capilar no veneno de Crotalus terrificus crotaminicus. Ciênc. e Cultura 10, 163 (1958).Google Scholar
  155. Mota, I., L. G. Vieira: Estudos sôbre venenos de serpentes brasileiras. I. Analise eletroforética. Acad. Bras. Ciências 22, 141 (1950).Google Scholar
  156. Mourson, J., and F. Schlagdenhauffen: Nouvelles recherches chimiques et physiologiques sur quelques liquides organiques (Eau des oursins, eau des kystes hydatiques et des cysticerques, liquide amniotique). C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 95, 791 (1882).Google Scholar
  157. Nakajima, M.: Biochemical studies on the nature of ascaris toxin. Yokohama med. Bull. 5, 10 (1954).Google Scholar
  158. Nakamura, M., and H. Takahashi: Sensory nerve terminals and inflammation from skin irritants. Tohoku J. exp. Med. 5, 288 (1924).Google Scholar
  159. Neumann, W., E. Habermann, and H. Hansen: Differentiation of two hemolytic factors in the bee’s venom. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak. 217, 130 (1953).Google Scholar
  160. Norton, S., and E. J. DE Beer: Effect of some antibiotics on rat mast cells in vitro. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 102, 352 (1955).Google Scholar
  161. Oliver-Gonzalez, J., and E. Korrlsch: Immunological and pathological phenomena related to substances from tissues of Ascaris lumbricoides. Rice Inst. Pamphlet 45, 141 (1958).Google Scholar
  162. Padawer, J., and A. S. Gordon: Isolation of mast cells from other cellular elements of rat peritoneal fluid. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 88, 29 (1955).Google Scholar
  163. Pantlitschko, M., and E. Kaiser: Untersuchungen über Aktivierung und Hemmung der Hyaluronidase. Biochem. Z. 322, 137 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Parisot, J., and P. Simonin: Action du liquide hydatique sur les appareils circulatoire et respiratoire. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 83, 149 (1920).Google Scholar
  165. Pawlowsky, E. N.: Gifttiere und ihre Giftigkeit. Jena: Gustav Fischer 1927.Google Scholar
  166. Pearson, O. P.: On the cause and nature of a poisonous action produced by the bite of a shrew (Blarina brevicauda). J. Mammal. 23, 159 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. PEÇAnha, J., and A. Oliveira Lima: Alergia aos antfgenos de abelhas e de vespas. Hospital 46, 341 (1954).Google Scholar
  168. Phisalix, M.: Poissons Toxicophores. Animaux Venimeux et Venins. Paris: Masson et Cie. (1922).Google Scholar
  169. Pickel, B.: Uma dermatite purulenta causada por potós em Sao Paulo. Arch. Biol. 24, 153 (1940).Google Scholar
  170. Pilcher, J. D., and T. Sollmann: Skin-reaction to morphine. Arch. int. Med. 33, 516 (1924).Google Scholar
  171. Piraja DA Silva, M.: Paederus colombianus est vesicant. Arch. Parasitol. 15, 431 (1912).Google Scholar
  172. Portier, P., and C. Richet: De l’action anaphylactique de certain venins. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 54, 170 (1902).Google Scholar
  173. Rao, S. S., and S. S. Rao: Proteases of cobra (Naja, naja) venom. In: Venoms. Ed. E. E. Buckley and N. Porges Washington, D. C. Amer. Ass. Advanc. Sci. (1956).Google Scholar
  174. Reid, G., and H. A. Jenkins: The liberation of renin from the kidney by tissue injury with cobra venom. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 26, 215 (1948).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Riley, J. F.: Proc. Scot. Soc. exp. Med. Dundee Meeting, 9. Feb. 1952. Cit. in: Riley, J. F. The riddle of mast cell. Lancet 1954 I, 241.Google Scholar
  176. Riley, J. F.: The effects of histamine liberators on the mast cells of the rat. J. Path. Bact. 65, 471 (1953).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Riley, J. F.: The mechanism of histamine release from mast cells. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 10, 271 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Riley, J. F., and G. B. West: Histamine in tissue mast cells. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 117, 72 P (1952).Google Scholar
  179. Robertson, M.: Serological groupings of vibrion septique and their relation to the production of toxin. J. Path. Bact. 23, 153 (1919).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Rocha E., Silva, M.: Histamina e anafilaxia em suas relaçöes com patogenia das doenças alérgicas. Sao Paulo: Edigraf 1946.Google Scholar
  181. Rocha E., and S. O. Andrade: Histamine and proteolytic enzymes. Liberation of histamine by papain. J. biol. Chem. 149, 9 (1943).Google Scholar
  182. Rocha E., W. T. Beraldo, and G. Rosenfeld: Bradykinin, a hypotensive and smooth muscle stimulating factor released from plasma globulin by snake venoms and by trypsin. Amer. J. Physiol. 156, 261 (1949).Google Scholar
  183. Rocha E., and A. Grana: Shock produced in dogs by hydatid fluid. Amer. J. Physiol. 143, 306 (1945).Google Scholar
  184. Rocha E., and A. Grana: Anaphylaxis-like reactions produced by Ascaris extracts: I. The changes in the histamine content and the coagulability of the blood in guinea-pigs and dogs. Arch. Surg. 52, 523 (1946a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Rocha E., and A. Grana: Anaphylaxis-like reactions produced by Ascaris extracts. II. The mechanism of the shock induced in dogs. Arch. Surg. 52, 713 (1946b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Rocha E., and S. O. Andrade: Anaphylaxis-like reactions produced by Ascaris extracts. Arch. Surg. 53, 199 (1946).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Rocha E., and H. O. Schild: The release of histamine by D-tubocurarine from the isolated diaphragm of the rat. J. Physiol. (Loud.) 109, 448 (1949).Google Scholar
  188. Rocha E., and R. M. Teixeira: Role played by leucocytes, platelets and plasma trypsin in peptone shock in the dog. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 61, 376 (1946).Google Scholar
  189. Rose, B., and J. S. L. Browne: Changes in the blood histamine in shock. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 44, 182 (1940).Google Scholar
  190. Rose, B., and P. Weil: Blood histamine in the rabbit during anaphylactic shock. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 42, 494 (1939).Google Scholar
  191. Rothschild, A., and A. Corrado (Personal communication) (1962).Google Scholar
  192. Rothschild, A., and M. Rocha E Silva: Activation of a histamine releasing agent (anaphylatoxin) in normal rat plasma. Brit. J. exp. Path. 35, 507 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Sanarelli, G.: Über Blutkörperchenveränderungen bei Skorpionenstich. Zbl. klin Med. 10, 153 (1889).Google Scholar
  194. Saunders, P. R.: Venom of the stonefish Synanceja verrucosa. Science 129, 272 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Schachter, M.: Anaphylaxis and histamine release in the rabbit. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 8, 412 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Schild, H. O.: Release of histamine-like substance in anaphylactic shock from various organs of the guinea-pig. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 90, 34P (1937).Google Scholar
  197. Schild, H. O.: Histamine release in anaphylactic shock from various tissues of the guinea-pig. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 95, 393 (1939).Google Scholar
  198. Schultz, W. H.: Physiological studies in anaphylaxis. I. The reaction of the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig sensitized with horse serum. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 1, 549 (1910a).Google Scholar
  199. Schultz, W. H.: Physiological studies in anaphylaxis. II. Reaction of smooth muscle from guinea-pig rendered tolerant to large doses of serum. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 2, 221 (1910b).Google Scholar
  200. Scroggie, A. E., and L. B. Jaques: The release of histamine and heparin by antigen from the isolated perfused liver of the sensitized dog. J. Immunol. 62, 103 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Shinamura, T., and N. J. Fuji: J. coll. Agric. 4, 189 (1917)Google Scholar
  202. Shinamura, T., Essex, H. E., J. Markowitz, and F. C. Mann: Physiologic responses and immune reactions to extracts of certain intestinal parasites. Amer. J. Physiol. 98, 18 (1931).Google Scholar
  203. Stansly, P. G., R. G. Shepherd, and H. J. White: Polymyxin: a new chemotherapeutic agent. Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp. 81, 43 (1947).Google Scholar
  204. Stevenson, N., and M. R. Reid: The relation of the sensory nerves to inflammation. Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp. 26, 21 (1915).Google Scholar
  205. Swift, P. N., and S. R. M. Bushby. Clinical aspects of toxicity of polymyxins A, B and E. Lancet 1953 I, 110.Google Scholar
  206. Tainter, M. L., and F. L. Reichert: Alleged mechanisms of local nerves in causation and in treatment of edema caused by irritants. Arch. Path. 6, 872 (1928).Google Scholar
  207. Tannenberg, J., u. M. Degener: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über lokale Kreislaufstörungen. Die Leukocytenabwanderung und die Diapedese der roten Blutkörperchen. Frankf. Z. Path. 31, 351 (1925).Google Scholar
  208. Thomas, L.: The physiological disturbances produced by endotoxins. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 16, 467 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Thomas, L., and R. A. Good: Studies on the generalized Shwartzman reaction. I. General observations concerning the phenomenon. J. exp. Med. 96, 605 (1952).Google Scholar
  210. Thorp, R. W., and W. D. Woodson: The black widow: America’s most poisonous spider. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press 1945.Google Scholar
  211. Tinel, J., and G. Ungar: Vasodilatation et libération locale de substances histaminiques. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 118, 1148 (1935).Google Scholar
  212. Tlsseuil, J.: Contribution à l’étude de la papillonite guyanaise. Bull. Soc. Path. exot. 28, 719 (1935).Google Scholar
  213. Trethewie, E. R.: Experiments on problem of “free” and “bound” histamine and acetylcholine. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 16, 225 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Trethewie, E. R.: Comparison of haemolysis and liberation of histamine by two Australian snake venoms. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 17, 145 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Trethewie, E. R.: Injury by trypsin. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 20, 49 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Ungar, G.: (Editor): Les méthodes employées pour l’étude du metabolisme et de la liberation de l’histamine. J. Physiol. (Paris) 53, 847 (1961).Google Scholar
  217. Ungar, G., and J. L. Parrot: Recherches sur le choc anaphylactique in vitro. Mise en liberté d’une substance active par le poumon isolé du cobaye sensibilisé. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 123, 676 (1936).Google Scholar
  218. Ungar, G., and J. L. Parrot: Sur la présence de substance histaminiques dans les tissus des invertébrés marins. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 126, 1156 (1937).Google Scholar
  219. Uvuas, B.: Histamine and histamine liberators. Nord. Med. 53, 770 (1955).Google Scholar
  220. Uvuas, B.: The mechanism of histamine liberation. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 10, 1 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Uvuas, B.: Mechanism of action of a histamine-liberating principle in jelly-fish (Cyanea capillata). Ann N. Y. Acad. Sci. 90, 751 (1960).Google Scholar
  222. Uvuas, B., B. Diamant, B. Hogberg, and I. L. Thon: Mechanism of mast-cell disruption induced by a principle extracted from Ascaris suis. Amer. J. Physiol. 199, 575 (1960).Google Scholar
  223. Valette, G., et H. Huidobro: Pouvoir histaminolibérateur de la chenille processionnaire du pin — Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Schiff. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 109, 344 (1957).Google Scholar
  224. Valle, J. R., Z. P. Picarelli, and J. L. Prado: Histamine content and pharmacological properties of crude extracts from setae of urticating caterpillars. Arch. in Pharmacodyn. 98, 324 (1954).Google Scholar
  225. Vaullegeard, A.: Etude expérimentale et critique sur l’action des helminthes. I. Cestodes et Nematodes. Bull. Soc. Linné, Normand. Caen. 4, 84 (1901).Google Scholar
  226. Vogt, W.: Pharmacologically active substances formed in egg yolk by cobra venom. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 136, 131 (1956).Google Scholar
  227. Vogt, W.: Naturally occurring lipid-soluble acids of pharmacological interest. Pharmacol. Rev. 10, 407 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Voorhees, A. B., H. J. Baker, and E. J. Pulaski: Reactions of albino rats to injections of dextran. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 76, 254 (1951).Google Scholar
  229. Waters, E. T., J. Markowitz, and L. B. Jaques: Anaphylaxis in the liverless dog. Science 87, 582 (1938).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Weil, M. H., L. D. Mac Lean, M. B. Vjsscher, and W. W. Spink: Investigations on the role of the central nervous system in shock produced by endotoxin from gram-negative microorganism. J. Lab. clin. Med. 46, 962 (1955).Google Scholar
  231. Weil, M. H., L. D. Mac Lean, M. B. Vjsscher, and W. W. Spink: Studies on the circulatory changes in the dog produced by endotoxin from gram-negative microorganisms. J. clin. Invest. 35, 1191 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Weil, M. H., and W. W. Spink: A comparison of shock due to endotoxin with anaphylactic shock. J. Lab. clin. Med. 50, 501 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Wilander, O.: Studien über Heparin. Skand. Arch. Physiol. 81, Suppl. 15 (1938).Google Scholar
  234. Wilson, C. W. M.: Factors influencing the urinary excretion of histamine in the rat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 126, 141 (1954).Google Scholar
  235. Wilson, W. H.: The physiological action of scorpion venom. J. Physiol. (Lund.) 31, 48 (1904).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. T. Beraldo
  • W. Dias da Silva

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations