Second-order Statistical Analysis of Directions

  • Eduard Batschelet
Part of the Proceedings in Life Sciences book series (LIFE SCIENCES)


If circular samples of equal size are reduced to their respective mean vectors, a sample of mean vectors is formed. This sample is referred to as a second-order sample. Kolmogorov’s test of goodness of fit may be used as a test for concentration. Since second-order samples are essentially bivariate, Hotelling’s T2 test (in case of normality) or a nonparametric competitor may be applied. Here a linear-circular correlation technique is recommended. Also studied is the comparison of two independent second-order samples.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eduard Batschelet
    • 1
  1. 1.Mathematisches InstitutUniversität ZürichZürichSwitzerland

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