Wheat pp 88-97 | Cite as

Improvement of Somatic Embryogenesis in Wheat by Segmentation of Cultured Embryos

  • H. Chlyah
  • M. Hsaine
  • R. Karim
  • A. Chlyah
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 13)


Research directed toward the improvement of somatic embryogenesis in cereals has emphasized the role of the culture medium (Sears and Deckard 1982; Heyser et al. 1985; Carman et al. 1987), the age of the embryo and its position on the medium (Ozias-Akins and Vasil 1983a) or has been directed towards preventing precocious germination of cultured embryos (Vasil and Vasil 1982) and normalizing somatic embryogenesis (Ozias-Akins and Vasil 1983b). Increasing the frequency and durability of embryogenic cultures has also been the object of study (Heyser et al. 1985). Other factors such as genotype (O’Hara and Street 1978) and type of explant: foliar tissue (Lu and Vasil 1981), anther (Picard and de Buyser 1977), zygotic embryos (Magnusson and Bornman 1985), and epiblast (He et al. 1986) have also been considered (see also Chaps. I.3, I.4, this Vol.).


Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Embryogenic Callus Zygotic Embryo Immature Embryo 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bajaj YPS (1966) Behavior of embryo segments of Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ettings. in vitro. Can J Bot 44: 1127–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Botti C, Vasil IK (1983) Plant regeneration by somatic embryogenesis from parts of cultured mature embryos of Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum. Z Pfianzenphysiol 111: 319–325Google Scholar
  3. Carman JG, Jefferson NE, Campbell WF (1987) Induction of embryogenic Triticum aestivum L. calli. I. Quantification of genotype and culture medium effects. II. Quantification of organic addenda and other culture variable effects. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 10: 101–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chlyah H (1984) Correlations in organogenesis. In: Plant tissue and cell culture: applications to crop improvement. Proc Symp Olomouc, Czech, pp 57–66Google Scholar
  5. Haccius B (1978) Question of unicellular origin of nonzygotic embryos in callus cultures. Phytomorphology 28: 74–81Google Scholar
  6. He DG, Tanner G, Scott KJ (1986) Somatic embryogenesis and morphogenesis in callus derived from the epiblast of immature embryos of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Plant Sci 45:119–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Heyser JW, Nabors MW, MacKinnon C, Dykes TA, Demott KJ, Kautzman DC, Mujeeb-Kazi A (1985) Long-term, high frequency plant regeneration and the induction of somatic embryogenesis in callus cultures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Z Pfianzenzücht 94:218–233Google Scholar
  8. Lu C, Vasil IK (1981) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf tissues of Panicum maximum Jacq. Theor Appl Genet 59: 275–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lu C, Vasil V, Vasil IK (1983) Improved efficiency of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in tissue cultures of maize (Zea mays L.). Theor Appl Genet 66: 285–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Magnusson I, Bornman CH (1985) Anatomical observations on somatic embryogenesis from scutellar tissues of immature zygotic embryos of Triticum aestivum. Physiol Plant 63:137–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) Revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. O’Hara JF, Street HE (1978) Wheat callus culture: the initiation, growth and organogenesis of callus derived from various explant sources. Ann Bot (London) 42: 1029–1038Google Scholar
  13. Ozias-Akins P, Vasil IK (1983a) Callus induction and growth from the mature embryo of Triticum aestivum (wheat). Protoplasma 115, 104–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ozias-Akins P, Vasil IK (1983b) Improved efficiency and normalization of somatic embryogenesis in Triticum aestivum (wheat). Protoplasma 117: 40–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Picard E, de Buyser H (1977) High production of embryoids in anther culture of pollen-derived homozygous spring wheat. Ann Amelior Plantes 24: 483–488Google Scholar
  16. Sears RG, Deckard EL (1982) Tissue culture variability in wheat callus induction and plant regeneration. Crop Sci 22: 546–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Springer WD, Green CE, Kohn KA (1979) A histological examination of tissue culture initiation from immature embryos of maize. Protoplasma 101: 269–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Vasil V, Vasil IK (1982) The ontogeny of somatic embryos of Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum. I. In cultured immature embryos. Bot Gaz 143: 454–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Chlyah
  • M. Hsaine
  • R. Karim
  • A. Chlyah
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Science FacultyMohammed V UniversityRabatMorocco

Personalised recommendations